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7, Imperial Arcade, Ludgate Circua 

London, E. C, England 



Copyright 1913 


Elizabeth Towne 



| y7l*3«. 



Chapter Page 

I. Inner State and Outer Form ... 9 

II. The Inner Phase: Character... 29 

III. The Outer Form : Personality.. 38 

IV. The Temperaments 47 

V. The Mental Qualities 68 

VI. The Egoistic Qualities 76 

VII. The Motive Qualities 81 

VIII. The Vitative Qualities 89 

IX. The Emotive Qualities 93 

X. The Applicative Qualities 100 

XL The Modificative Qualities 107 

XII. The Kelative Qualities 114 

XIII. The Perceptive Qualities 122 

XIV. The Reflective Qualities 139 

XV. The Eeligio-Moral Qualities. . . .148 

XVI. Faces 156 

XVII. Chins and Mouths 169 

XVIII. Eyes, Ears, and Noses 177 

XIX. Miscellaneous Signs 186 



" Human Nature" is a term most fre- 
quently used and yet but little understood. 
The average person knows in a general way 
what he and others mean when this term is 
employed, but very few are able to give an 
off-hand definition of the term or to state 
what in their opinion constitutes the real es- 
sence of the thought expressed by the famil- 
iar phrase. We are of the opinion that the 
first step in the process of correct under- 
standing of any subject is that of acquaint- 
ance with its principal terms, and, so, we 
shall begin our consideration of the subject 
of Human Nature by an examination of the 
term used to express the idea itself. 

" Human," of course, means "of or per- 
taining to man or mankind." Therefore, 
Human Nature means the nature of man or 
mankind. "Nature," in this usage, means: 
' ' The natural disposition of mind of any per- 
son; temper; personal character; individual 

10 Human Nature 

constitution; the peculiar mental character- 
istics and attributes which serve to distin- 
guish one person from another." 

Thus we see that the essence of the nature 
of men, or of a particular human being, is 
the mind, the mental qualities, characteris- 
tics, properties and attributes. Human 
Nature is then a phase of psychology and 
subject to the laws, principles and meth- 
ods of study, examination and consideration 
of that particular branch of science. 

But while the general subject of psychology 
includes the consideration of the inner work- 
ings of the mind, the processes of thought, 
the nature of feeling, and the oj)eration of 
the will, the special subject of Human Na- 
ture is concerned only with the question of 
character, disposition, temperament, per- 
sonal attributes, etc., of the individuals mak- 
ing up the race of man. Psychology is gen- 
eral—Human Nature is particular. Psychol- 
ogy is more or less abstract— Human Nature 
is concrete. Psychology deals with laws, 
causes and principles— Human Nature deals 
with effects, manifestations, and expressions. 

Human Nature expresses itself in two gen- 

Inner State and Outer Form 11 

eral phases, i.e., (1) the phase of Inner 
States; and (2) the phase of Outer Forms. 
These two phases, however, are not separate 
or opposed to each other, but are complemen- 
tary aspects of the same thing. There is al- 
ways an action and reaction between the In- 
ner State and the Outer Form— between the 
Inner Feeling and the Outer Expression. If 
we know the particular Inner State we may 
infer the appropriate Outer Form ; and if we 
know the Outer Form we may infer the In- 
ner State. 

That the Inner State affects the Outer 
Form is a fact generally acknowledged by 
men, for it is in strict accordance with the 
general experience of the race. We know 
that certain mental states will result in im- 
parting to the countenance certain lines and 
expressions appropriate thereto; certain pe- 
culiarities of carriage and manner, voice and 
demeanor. The facial characteristics, man- 
ner, walk, voice and gestures of the miser will 
be recognized as entirely different from that 
of the generous person ; those of the coward 
differ materially from those of the brave 
man ; those of the vain are distinguished from 

12 Human Nature 

those of the modest. We know that certain 
mental attitudes will produce the correspond- 
ing physical expressions of a smile, a frown, 
an open hand, a clenched fist, an erect spine 
or bowed shoulders, respectively. We also 
know that certain feelings will cause the eye 
to sparkle or grow dim, the voice to become 
resonant and positive or to become husky and 
weak ; according to the nature of the feelings. 

Prof. Wm. James says: "What kind of 
emotion of fear would be left if the feeling 
neither of trembling lips nor of weakened 
limbs, neither of goose-flesh nor of visceral 
stirrings, were present, it is quite impossible 
for me to think. Can one fancy the state of 
rage and picture no ebullition in the chest, no 
flushing of the face, no dilation of the nostrils, 
no clenching of the teeth, no impulse to vigor- 
ous action, but in their stead limp muscles, 
calm breathing, and a placid face ? ' ' 

Prof. Halleck «ays: "All the emotions 
have well-defined muscular expression. Dar- 
win has written an excellent work entitled, 
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and 
Animals, to which students must refer for a 
detailed account of such expression. A very 

Inner State and Outer Form 13 

few examples must suffice here. In all the ex- 
hilarating emotions, the eyebrows, the eye- 
lids, the nostrils, and the angles of the mouth 
are raised. In the depressing passions it is 
the reverse. This general statement conveys 
so much truth, that a careful observer can 
read a large part of the history of a human 
being written in the face. For this reason 
many phrenologists have wisely turned phys- 
iognomists. Grief is expressed by raising 
the inner ends of the eyebrows, drawing 
down the corners of the mouth, and trans- 
versely wrinkling the middle part of the fore- 
head. In Terra del Fuego, a party of na- 
tives conveyed to Darwin the idea that a cer- 
tain man was low-spirited, by pulling down 
their cheeks in order to make their faces 
long. Joy is expressed by drawing back- 
ward and upward the corners of the mouth. 
The upper lip rises and draws the cheeks up- 
ward, forming wrinkles under the eyes. The 
elevation of the upper lip and the nostrils ex- 
presses contempt. A skillful observer can 
frequently tell if one person admires another. 
In this case the eyebrows are raised, disclos- 
ing a brightening eye and a relaxed expres- 
sion; sometimes a gentle smile plays about 

14 Human Nature 

the mouth. Blushing is merely the physical 
expression of certain emotions. We notice 
the expression of emotion more in the counte- 
nance, because the effects are there more 
plainly visible ; but the muscles of the entire 
body, the vital organs, and the viscera, are 
also vehicles of expression." 

These things need but a mention in order 
to be recognized and admitted. This is the 
action of the Inner upon the Outer. There 
is, however, a reaction of the Outer upon the 
Inner, which while equally true is not so gen- 
erally recognized nor admitted, and we think 
it well to briefly call your attention to the 
same, for the reason that this correspondence 
between the Inner and the Outer— this reac- 
tion as well as the action— must be appre- 
ciated in order that the entire meaning and 
content of the subject of Human Nature may 
be fully grasped. 

That the reaction of the Outer Form upon 
the Inner State may be understood, we ask 
you to consider the following opinions of 
well-known and accepted authorities of the 
New Psychology, regarding the established 
fact that a physical expression related to a 

Inner State and Outer Form 15 

mental state, will, if voluntarily induced, 
tend to in turn induce the mental state ap- 
propriate to it. We have used these quota- 
tions in other books of this series, but will 
insert them here in this place because they 
have a direct bearing upon the particular sub- 
ject before us, and because they furnish di- 
rect and unquestioned authority for the 
statements just made by us. We ask you to 
consider them carefully, for they express a 
most important truth. 

Prof. Halleck says: "By inducing an ex- 
pression we can often cause its allied emo- 
tion. . . . Actors have frequently testi- 
fied to the fact that emotion will arise if they 
go through the appropriate muscular move- 
ments. In talking to a character on the stage, 
if they clench the fist and frown, they often 
find themselves becoming really angry; if 
they start with counterfeit laughter, they find 
themselves growing cheerful. A German 
professor says that he cannot walk with a 
schoolgirl's mincing step and air without 
feeling frivolous." 

Prof. Wm. James says: "Whistling to 
keep up courage is no mere figure of speech. 

16 Human Nature 

On the other hand, sit all day in a moping 
posture, sigh, and reply to everything with 
a dismal voice, and your melancholy lingers. 
If we wish to conquer undesirable emotional 
tendencies in ourselves, we must assiduously, 
and in the first instance coldbloodedly, go 
through the outward movements' of those con- 
trary dispositions which we wish to cultivate. 
Smooth the brow, brighten the eye, contract 
the dorsal rather than the ventral aspect of 
the frame, and speak in a major key, pass the 
genial compliment, and your heart must in- 
deed be frigid if it does not gradually thaw/' 
Dr. Wood Hutchinson, says: "To what 
extent muscular contractions condition emo- 
tions, as Prof. James has suggested, may be 
easily tested by a quaint and simple little ex- 
periment upon a group of the smallest volun- 
tary muscles of the body, those that move 
the eyeball. Choose some time when you are 
sitting quietly in your room, free from all 
disturbing influences. Then stand up, and 
assuming an easy position, cast the eyes up- 
ward and hold them in that position for 
thirty seconds. Instantly and involuntarily 
you will be conscious of a tendency toward 

Inner State and Outer Form 17 

reverential, devotional, contemplative ideas 
and thoughts. Then turn the eyes sideways, 
glancing directly to the right or to the left, 
through half-closed lids. Within thirty sec- 
onds images of suspicion, of uneasiness, or of 
dislike will rise unbidden to the mind. Turn 
the eyes on one side and slightly downward, 
and suggestions of jealousy or coquetry will 
be apt to spring unbidden. Direct your gaze 
downward toward the floor, and you are 
likely to go off into a fit of reverie or ab- 

Prof. Maudsley says: "The specific mus- 
cular action is not merely an exponent of pas- 
sion, but truly an essential part of it. If we 
try while the features are fixed in the expres- 
sion of one passion to call up in the mind a 
different one, we shall find it impossible to do 

We state the fact of the reaction of the 
Outer upon the Inner, with its supporting 
quotations from the authorities, not for the 
purpose of instructing our readers in the art 
of training the emotions by means of the 
physical, for while this subject is highly im- 
portant, it forms no part of the particular 

18 Human Nature 

subject under our present consideration— but 
that the student may realize the close rela- 
tionship existing between the Inner State and 
the Outer Form. These two elements or 
phases, in their constant action and reaction, 
manifest the phenomena of Human Nature, 
and a knowledge of each, and both give to us 
the key which will open for us the door of the 
understanding of Human Nature. 

Let us now call your attention to an illus- 
tration which embodies both principles— that 
of the Inner and the Outer— and the action 
and reaction between them, as given by that 
master of subtle ratiocination, Edgar Allan 
Poe. Poe in his story "The Purloined Let- 
ter" tells of a boy at school who attained 
great proficiency in the game of "even or 
odd" in which one player strives to guess 
whether the marbles held in the hand of his 
opponent are odd or even. The boy's plan 
was to gauge the intelligence of his opponent 
regarding the matter of making changes, and 
as Poe says: "this lay in mere observation 
and admeasurement of the astuteness of his 
opponents." Poe describes the process as fol- 
lows: "For example, an arrant simpleton is 

Inner State and Outer Form 19 

his opponent, and, holding up his closed 
hand, asks, 'are they even or odd?' Our 
schoolboy replies, 'odd,' and loses; but upon 
the second trial he wins, for he then says to 
himself, 'the simpleton had them even upon 
the first trial, and his amount of cunning is 
just sufficient to make him have them odd 
upon the second ; I will therefore guess odd ; ' 
—he guesses and wins. Now, with a simple- 
ton a degree above the first, he would have 
reasoned thus : ' This fellow finds that in the 
first instance I guessed odd, and, in the 
second, he will propose to himself upon the 
first impulse, a simple variation from even to 
odd, as did the first simpleton; but then a 
second thought will suggest that this is too 
simple a variation, and finally he will decide 
upon putting it even as before. I will there- 
fore guess even;' he guesses even and wins.'' 
Poe continues by stating that this "is 
merely an identification of the reasoner's in- 
tellect with that of his opponent. Upon in- 
quiring of the boy by what means he effected 
the thorough identification in which his suc- 
cess consisted, I received answer as follows: 
'When I wish to find out how wise, or how 

20 Human Nature 

stupid, or how good, or how wicked is any one, 
or what are his thoughts at the moment, 7 
fashion the expression of my face, as accu- 
rately as possible in accordance with the ex- 
pression of his, and then wait to see what 
thoughts or sentiments arise in my mind or 
heart, as if to match or correspond with the 
expression/ This response of the school boy 
lies at the bottom of all the spurious pro- 
fundity which has been attributed to Roche- 
foucauld, to La Bougive, to Machiavelli, and 
to Campanella." 

In this consideration of Human Nature we 
shall have much to say about the Outer Form. 
But we must ask the reader to always remem- 
ber that the Outer Form is always the expres- 
sion and manifestation of the Inner State, be 
that Inner State latent and dormant within 
the depths of the subconscious mentality, or 
else active and dynamic in conscious expres- 
sion. Just as Prof. James so strongly in- 
sists, we cannot imagine an inner feeling or 
emotion without its corresponding outward 
physical expression, so is it impossible to 
imagine the outward expressions generally 
associated with a particular feeling or emo- 

Inner State and Outer Form 21 

tion without its corresponding inner state. 
Whether or not one of these, the outer or in- 
ner, is the cause of the other— and if so, which 
one is the cause and which the effect— need 
not concern us here. In fact, it would seem 
more reasonable to accept the theory that 
they are correlated and appear simultane- 
ously. Many careful thinkers have held that 
action and reaction are practically the same 
thing— merely the opposite phases of the 
same fact. If this be so, then indeed when 
we are studying the Outer Form of Human 
Nature we are studying psychology just as 
much as when we are studying the Inner 
States. Prof. Wm. James in his works upon 
psychology insists upon the relevancy of the 
consideration of the outward expressions of 
the inner feeling and emotion, as we have 
seen. The same authority speaks even more 
emphatically upon this phase of the subject, 
as follows : 

"The feeling, in the coarser emotions, re- 
sults from the bodily expression. . . . 
My theory is that the bodily changes follow 
directly the perception of the exciting fact, 
and that our feeling of the same changes as 

22 Human Nature 

they occur is the emotion. . . . Particu- 
lar perceptions certainly do produce wide- 
spread bodily effects by a sort of immediate 
physical influence, antecedent to the arousal 
of an emotion or emotional idea. . . . 
Every one of the bodily changes, whatsoever 
it may be, is felt, acutely or obscurely, the 
moment it occurs. . . . If we fancy some 
strong emotion, and then try to abstract 
from our consciousness of it all the feelings 
of its bodily symptoms, we have nothing left 
behind. ... A disembodied human emo- 
tion is a sheer nonentity. I do not say that 
it is a contradiction in the nature of things, 
or that pure spirits are necessarily con- 
demned to cold intellectual lives; but I sav 
that for us emotion disassociated from all 
bodily feeling is inconceivable. The more 
closely I scrutinize my states, the more per- 
suaded I become that whatever 'coarse' af- 
fections and passions I have are in very truth 
constituted by, and made up of, those bodily 
changes which we ordinarily call their ex- 
pression or consequence. . . . But our 
emotions must always be inwardly what they 
are, whatever may be the physiological 

Inner State and Outer Form 23 

ground of their apparition. If they are deep, 
pure, worthy, spiritual facts on any con- 
ceivable theory of their physiological source, 
they remain no less deep, pure, spiritual, and 
worthy of regard on this present sensational 

Kay says: ''Does the mind or spirit of 
man, whatever it may be, in its actings in 
and through the body, leave a material im- 
pression or trace in its structure of every 
conscious action it performs, which remains 
permanently fixed, and forms a material 
record of all that it has done in the body, to 
which it can afterward refer as to a book and 
recall to mind, making it again, as it were, 
present to it? . . . We find nature every- 
where around us recording its movements 
and marking the changes it has undergone 
in material forms,— in the crust of the earth, 
the composition of the rocks, the structure of 
the trees, the conformation of our bodies, 
and those spirits of ours, so closely connected 
with our material bodies, that so far as we 
know, they can think no thought, perform no 
action, without their presence and co-opera- 
tion, may have been so joined in order to pre- 

24 Human Nature 

serve a material and lasting record of all that 
they think and do." 

Marsh says: "Every human movement, 
every organic act, every volition, passion, or 
emotion, every intellectual process, is accom- 
panied with atomic disturbance." Picton 
says : ' ' The soul never does one single action 
by itself apart from some excitement of bod- 
ily tissue." Emerson says: "The rolling rock 
leaves its scratches on the mountain; the 
river its channel in the soil; the animal its 
bones in the stratum ; the fern and leaf their 
modest epitaph in the coal. The falling drop 
makes its sculpture in the sand or stone. 
. . . The ground is all memoranda and 
signatures, and every object covered over 
with hints which speak to the intelligent. In 
nature this self-registration is incessant." 
Morell says: "The mind depends for the 
manifestation of all its activities upon a ma- 
terial organism." Bain says: "The organ 
of the mind is not the brain by itself ; it is the 
brain, nerve, muscles, organs of sense, vis- 
cera. . . . It is uncertain how far even 
thought, reminiscence, or the emotions of the 
past and absent could be sustained without 

Inner State and Outer Form 25 

the more distant communication between the 
brain and the rest of the body. ' ' And, thus, 
as we consider the subject carefully we see 
that psychology is as much concerned with 
the physical manifestations of the mental im- 
pulses and states as with the metaphysical 
aspect of those states— as much with the 
Outer Form as with the Inner State— for it is 
practically impossible to permanently sep- 
arate them. 

As an illustration of the physical accom- 
paniment or Outer Form, of the psychical 
feeling or Inner State, the following quota- 
tion from Darwin's "Origin of the Emo- 
tions," will well serve the purpose: 

"Fear is often preceded by astonishment, 
and is so far akin to it that both lead to the 
senses of sight and hearing being instantly 
aroused. In both cases the eyes and mouth 
are widely opened and the eyebrows raised. 
The frightened man at first stands like a 
statue, motionless and breathless, or crouches 
down as if instinctively to escape observa- 
tion. The heart beats quickly and violently, 
so that it palpitates or knocks against the 
ribs ; but it is very doubtful if it then works 

26 Human Nature 

more efficiently than usual, so as to send a 
greater supply of blood to all parts of the 
body ; for the skin instantly becomes pale as 
during incipient faintness. This paleness of 
the surface, however, is probably in large 
part, or is exclusively, due to the vaso-motor 
centre being affected in such a manner as to 
cause the contraction of the small arteries of 
the skin. That the skin is much affected 
under the sense of great fear, we see in the 
marvelous manner in which perspiration im- 
mediately exudes from it. This exudation is 
all the more remarkable, as the surface is 
then cold, and hence the term, a cold sweat ; 
whereas the sudorific glands are properly 
excited into action when the surface is heated. 
The hairs also on the skin stand erect, and 
the superficial muscles shiver. In connection 
with the disturbed action of the heart the 
breathing is hurried. The salivary glands 
act imperfectly ; the mouth becomes dry and 
is often opened and shut. I have noticed 
that under slight fear there is a strong ten- 
dency to yawn. One of the best marked 
symptoms is the trembling of all the muscles 
of the body ; and this is often seen in the lips. 

Inner State and Outer Form 27 

From this cause, and from the dryness of the 
mouth, the voice becomes husky or indistinct 
or may altogether fail. ... As fear in- 
creases into an agony of terror, we behold, 
as under all violent emotions, diversified re- 
sults. The heart beats wildly or fails to act 
and faintness ensues; there is a death-like 
pallor; the breathing is labored; the wings 
of the nostrils are widely dilated; there is a 
gasping and convulsive motion of the lips ; a 
tremor of the hollow cheek, a gulping and 
catching of the throat; the uncovered and 
protruding eyeballs are fixed on the object 
of terror; or they may roll restlessly from 
side to side. The pupils are said to be enor- 
mously dilated. All the muscles of the body 
may become rigid or may be thrown into con- 
vulsive movements. The hands are alterna- 
tely clenched and opened, often with a twitch- 
ing movement. The arms may be protruded 
as if to avert some dreadful danger, or may 
be thrown wildly over the head. The Rev. 
Mr. Hagenauer has seen this latter action in 
a terrified Australian. In other cases there 
is a sudden and uncontrolled tendency to 
headlong flight; and so strong is this that the 

28 Human Nature 

boldest soldiers may be seized with a sudden 

In conclusion, let us say that just as the 
above striking description of the master- 
scientist, Darwin, shows us that the particu- 
lar emotion has its outer manifestations— 
the particular Inner State its Outer Form- 
so has the general character of the person its 
outer manifestation, and Outer Form. And, 
just as to the eye of the experienced observer 
at a distance (even in the case of a photo- 
graphic representation, particularly in the 
case of a moving picture) may recognize the 
Inner State from the Outer Form of the feel- 
ing or emotion, so may the experienced 
character reader interpret the whole char- 
acter of the person from the Outer Form 
thereof. The two interpretations are based 
on exactly the same general principles. The 
inner thought and feeling manifest in the 
outer physical form. He who learns the al- 
phabet of Outer Form may read page after 
page of the book of Human Nature. 



Do you know what " character" is? The 
word itself, in its derivation and original 
usage, means: "a stamp, mark or sign, en- 
graved or stamped." As time passed the 
term was applied to the personal peculiarities 
of individuals, and was defined as: "the per- 
sonal qualities or attributes of a person ; the 
distinguishing traits of a person. Later the 
term was extended to mean: "the part en- 
acted by anyone in a play." In the common 
usage of the term we seek to convey an idea in 
which each and all of the above stated mean- 
ings are combined. A man's character is the 
result of impressions made upon his own 
mind, or those of the race. It is also the 
sum of his personal qualities and attributes. 
It is also, in a sense, the part he plays in the 
great drama of life. 

Each man's character has its inner phase 
consisting of the accumulated impressions of 
the past which seek to manifest in the pres- 
ent. And, likewise, the character of each 


30 Human Nature 

man manifests in an outer phase of form, 
mark, and stamp of personality. There are 
no two characters precisely alike. There is 
an infinite possibility of combination of the 
elements that go to make up character. This 
is accordance with what appears to be a uni- 
versal law of nature, for there are no two 
blades of grass exactly alike, nor two grains 
of sand bearing an exact resemblance to each 
other. Nature seems to seek after and to 
manifest variety of form and quality. But, 
still, just as we may classify all things, ani- 
mate and inanimate, into general classes and 
then into subordinate ones— each genus and 
each species having its particular character- 
istics, qualities and attributes, so we may, and 
do, classify human character into general 
classes and then into particular subdivisions 
into which each individual is found to fit. 
This fact makes it possible for us to study 
Human Nature as a science. 

The character of each individual is held to 
be the result of the impressions made upon 
the plastic material of the mind, either in the 
form of past impressions upon his ancestors 
or of past impressions received by the indi- 

The Inner Phase: Character 31 

vidual. The past impressions reach him 
through the channel of heredity, while the 
personal impressions come to him through 
environment. But by heredity we do not 
mean the transmission of the personal char- 
acteristics of one's parents or even grand- 
parents, but something far deeper and 
broader. We believe that one inherits far 
less of the qualities of one's parents than is 
generally believed. But, we believe that 
much that goes to make up our character is 
derived from the associated qualities and im- 
pressions of many generations of ancestors. 
Inasmuch as each individual contains within 
him the transmitted qualities of nearly every 
individual who lived several thousand years 
ago, it may be said that each individual is 
an heir to the accumulated impressions of the 
race, which however form in an infinite 
variety of combinations, the result being that 
although the root of the race is the same yet 
each individual differs in combination from 
each other individual. As Luther Burbank 
has said: " Heredity means much, but what 
is heredity? Not some hideous ancestral 
specter, forever crossing the path of a human 

32 Human Nature 

being. Heredity is simply the sum of all the 
effects of all the environments of all past gen- 
erations on the responsive ever-moving life- 

The records of the past environment of 
the race are stored away in the great region 
of the subconscious mentality, from whence 
they arise in response to the call of some at- 
tractive object of thought or perception, al- 
ways, however, modified and restrained by 
the opposite characteristics. As Prof. Elmer 
Gates has said: "At least ninety per cent of 
our mental life is sub-conscious. If you will 
analyze your mental operations you will find 
that conscious thinking is never a continu- 
ous line of consciousness, but a series of con- 
scious data with great intervals of subcon- 
sciousness. We sit and try to solve a prob- 
lem and fail. We walk around, try again and 
fail. Suddenly an idea dawns that leads to 
a solution of the problem. The sub-conscious 
processes were at work. We do not volition- 
ally create our own thinking. It takes place 
in us. We are more or less passive recip- 
ients. We cannot change the nature of a 

The Inner Phase: Character 33 

thought, or of a truth, but we can, as it were, 
guide the ship by a moving of the helm." 

But character is dependent upon race in- 
heritance only for its raw materials, which 
are then worked into shape by the influence 
of environment and by the will of the indi- 
vidual. A man's environment is, to some ex- 
tent at least, dependent upon the will. A man 
may change his environment, and by the use 
of his will he may overcome many inherited 
tendencies. As Halleck well says: "Hered- 
ity is a powerful factor, for it supplies raw 
material for the will to shape. Even the will 
cannot make anything without material. Will 
acts through choice, and some kinds of en- 
vironment afford far more opportunities for 
choice than others. Shakespeare found in 
London the germ of true theatrical taste, al- 
ready vivified by a long line of miracle plays, 
moralities and interludes. In youth he con- 
nected himself with the theatre, and his will 
responded powerfully to his environment. 
Some surroundings are rich in suggestion, 
affording opportunity for choice, while others 
are poor. The will is absolutely confined to 
a choice between alternatives. Character 

34 Human Nature 

then, is a resultant of will power, heredity 
and environment. The modern tendency is 
to overestimate the effects of heredity and 
environment in forming character; but, on 
the other hand, we must not underestimate 
them. The child of a Hottentot put in 
Shakespeare's home, and afterward sent 
away to London with him, would never have 
made a Shakespeare ; for heredity would not 
have given the will sufficient raw material 
to fashion over into such a noble product. 
We may also suppose a case to show the great 
power of environment. Had a band of gyp- 
sies stolen Shakespeare at birth, carried him 
to Tartary, and left him among the nomads, 
his environment would never have allowed 
him to produce such plays as he placed upon 
the English stage." 

Many persons are reluctant to admit the 
effect of heredity upon character. They seem 
to regard heredity as the idea of a monster 
ruling the individual with an iron hand, and 
with an emphasis upon undesirable traits of 
character. Such people lose sight of the fact 
that at the best heredity merely supplies us 
with the raw material of character rather 

The Inner Phase: Character 35 

than the finished product, and that there is 
much good in this raw material. We receive 
our inheritance of good as well as bad. De- 
prive a man of the advantage of his heredity, 
and we place him back to the plane of the 
savage, or perhaps still lower in the scale. 
Heredity is simply the shoulders of the race 
affording us a place for our feet, in order 
that we may rise higher than those who lived 
before. For heredity, substitute evolution, 
and we may get a clearer idea of this ele- 
ment of character. 

As for environment, it is folly to deny its 
influence. Take two young persons of equal 
ability, similar tastes, and the same heredity, 
and place them one in a small village, and 
the other in a great metropolis, and keep 
them there until middle-age, and we will see 
the influence of environment. The two may 
be equally happy and contented, and may 
possess the same degree of book-education, 
but, nevertheless, their experiences will have 
been so different that the character of the two 
individuals must be different. In the same 
way, place the two young persons, one in the 
Whitechapel district, and the other amidst 

36 Human Nature 

the best surroundings and example, and see 
the result. Remember, that in environment 
is included the influence of other persons. 
The effect of environment arises from Sug- 
gestion, that great moulding and creative 
principle of the mind. It is true that, "As a 
man thinketh, so is he," but a man's thoughts 
depend materially upon the associations of 
environment, experience, and suggestion. 
As Ziehen says : "We cannot think as we will, 
but we must think as just those associations 
which happen to be present prescribe." 

But, without going further into the ques- 
tion of the elements which go toward form- 
ing character, let us take our position firmly 
upon the fact that each individual is stamped 
with the impression of a special character— 
a character all his own. Each has his own 
character or part to play in the great drama 
of life. The character of some seems fixed 
and unchangeable, while that of others is seen 
to be in the process of change. But in either 
case each and every man has his own char- 
acter or manifestation of Human Nature, in 
its inner and outer aspects. And each in- 
dividual, while in a sense forming a special 
class by himself, nevertheless belongs to a 

The Inner Phase: Character 37 

larger class, which in turn is a part of a still 
larger, and so on. 

Instead of studying the philosophy or 
metaphysics of character, or even its general 
psychology, let us in this particular volume 
devote our attention to the elements which 
go to form the character of each and every 
person, so that we may understand them 
when we meet them in manifested form. 
And let us learn the Outer Form which ac- 
company these Inner States. 

Upon the stage of Life move backward 
and forward many characters, each having 
his or her own form, manner and appearance, 
which like those of the characters upon the 
mimic stage, may be recognized if we will 
but bestow a little care upon the subject. The 
Othellos, Hamlets, Shylocks, Iagos, Richards, 
Lears, and the rest are to be found in every- 
day life. The Micawbers, Chuzzlewits, 
Twists, and the rest are in as full evidence 
on the streets and in the offices, as in the 
books. The person who is able to read and 
interpret Human Nature is possessed of a 
knowledge far more useful to him than that 
contained within the covers of musty books 
upon impractical subjects. 



Just as character is the inner phase of 
Human Nature, so is personality its outer 
phase. To many the two terms are synony- 
mous, but analysis will show the shades of 
difference between them. A man's character 
is his inner self, while his personality is the 
outward indication of his self. The word, in 
this sense, is defined as: "That which con-, 
stitutes the personal traits of a person, as 
his manner, conduct, habits, appearance, and 
other observable personal peculiarities." 

The word is derived from the Latin word, 
persona, meaning, "a mask used by play-ac- 
tors," which in turn was derived from the 
two words per, meaning "through," and 
sono, meaning, ' ' to sound, ' ' or combined, ' ' to 
sound through." And the derivation of the 
term really gives us an idea of its inner 
meaning, for the personality is really the 
mask worn by the character, and through 
which it sounds, speaks, or manifests itself, 
Jeremy Taylor once said: "No man can long 


The Outer Phase: Personality 39 

put on person and act a part but his evil man- 
ners will peep through the corners of his 
white robe." Archbishop Trench once said 
that the real meaning of the phrase, "God is 
no respecter of persons" is that the Almighty 
cared nothing for what part in life a person 
plays, but how he plays it. The old-time 
play-actor was wont to assume a mask of the 
features of the part he played, just as the 
modern actor "makes up" for the part and 
walks, speaks and acts in accordance there- 
with. Whether or not the individual be 
aware of the fact, Nature furnishes to each 
his mask of personality— his persona— by 
which those who understand may recognize 
the part he plays, or his character. In both 
the inner character, and the outer personal- 
ity, each individual struts the stage of life 
and plays his part. 

The mask or "make up," of personality, 
by which men may read each other's charac- 
ter, is evolved and developed from the in- 
stinctive physical expression accompanying 
thought, feeling and emotion. Just as the 
frown accompanying the feeling of annoy- 
ance or anger will, if repeated sufficiently 

40 Human Nature 

often, become fixed upon the countenance of 
the man, so will all of his general thoughts, 
feelings and emotions register themselves in 
his manner, gait, tone of voice, carriage and 
facial expression. Moreover, his inherited 
tendencies will show themselves in the same 

Professor Wm. James says, regarding the 
genesis of emotional reactions: "How come 
the various objects which excite emotion to 
produce such special and different bodily ef- 
fects ? This question was not asked till quite 
recently, but already some interesting sug- 
gestions toward answering it have been 
made. Some movements of expression can 
be accounted for as weakened repetitions of 
movements which formerly (when they were 
stronger) were of utility to the subject. 
Others are similarly weakened repetitions of 
movements which under other conditions were 
physiologically necessary concomitants of the 
useful movements. Of the latter reactions, the 
respiratory disturbances in anger and fear 
might be taken as examples— organic reminis- 
cences, as it were, reverberations in imagina- 
tion of the blowings of the man making a 

The Outer Phase: Personality 41 

series of combative efforts, or the pantings 
of one in precipitate flight. Such at least is 
a suggestion made by Mr. Spencer which has 
found approval." 

Herbert Spencer says, on this subject: 
To have in a slight degree such psychical 
states as accompany the reception of wounds, 
and are experienced during flight, is to be in 
a state of what we call fear. And to have in 
a slight degree such psychical states as the 
processes of catching, killing, and eating im- 
ply, is to have the desires to catch, kill and 
eat. That the propensities to the acts are 
nothing else than nascent excitations of the 
psychical state involved in the acts, is proved 
by the natural language of the propensities. 
Fear, when strong, expresses itself in cries, in 
efforts to escape in palpitations, in trem- 
blings ; and these are just the manifestations 
that go along with an actual suffering of the 
evil feared. The destructive passion is shown 
in a general tension of the muscular system, 
in gnashing of teetn and protrusion of the 
claws, in dilated eyes and nostrils in growls ; 
and these are weaker forms of the actions 
that accompany the killing of prey. To such 

42 Human Nature 

objective evidences every one can add sub- 
jective evidences. Everyone can testify that 
the psychical state called fear consists of 
mental representations of certain painful re- 
sults; and that the one called anger consists 
of mental representations of the actions and 
impressions which would occur while inflict- 
ing some kind of pain." 

Professor Wm. James adds the following 
to the discussion: "So slight a symptom as 
the snarl or sneer, the one-sided uncovering 
of the upper teeth, is accounted for by Dar- 
win as a survival from the time when our 
ancestors had large canines, and unfleshed 
him (as dogs do now) for attack. Similarly 
the raising of the eyebrows in outward at- 
tention, the opening of the mouth in astonish- 
ment, come, according to the same author, 
from the utility of these movements in ex- 
treme cases. The raising of the eyebrows 
goes with the opening of the eye for better 
vision, the opening of th& mouth with the in- 
tensest listening, and with the rapid catch- 
ing of the breath which precedes muscular 
effort. The distension of the nostrils in 
anger is interpreted by Spencer as an echo 

The Outer Phase: Personality 43 

of the wav in which our ancestors had to 
breathe when, during combat, their 'mouth 
was filled up by a part of an antagonists 's 
body that had been seized.' The trembling 
of fear is supposed by Mantegazza to be for 
the sake of warming the blood. The redden- 
ing of the face and neck is called by Wundt 
a compensatory arrangement for relieving 
the brain of the blood-pressure which the 
simultaneous excitement of the heart brings 
with it. The effusion of tears is explained 
both by this author and by Darwin to be a 
blood-withdrawing agency of a similar sort. 
The contraction of the muscles around the 
eyes, of which the primitive use is to protect 
those organs from being too much gorged 
with blood during the screaming fits of in- 
fancy, survives in adult life in the shape of 
the frown, which instantly comes over the 
brow when anything difficult or displeasing 
presents itself either to thought or action.' ' 
Thus, it will be seen, the fact that all in- 
ward states manifest themselves to some de- 
gree in outward physical expression, brings 
with it the logical inference that particular 
mental states when habitually manifested 

44 Human Nature 

tend to fix in the physical organism the ex- 
pression associated with them. As "thoughts 
take form in action," so habitual mental 
states tend to register traces of those actions. 
A piece of paper folded in a certain way sev- 
eral times shows plainly the marks on the fold- 
ing. In the same manner the creases in our 
clothing, shoes and gloves, show the marks 
of our personal physical form. A habitual 
mental state of cheerfulness is accompanied 
by a frequent exercise of the muscles express- 
ing the physical signs of that feeling, and 
finally the smile wrinkles are formed that all 
may read them. In the same way the gloomy, 
pessimistic mental attitude produces the 
marks and wrinkles showing the habit of fre- 
quent down-turning of the corners of our 
mouths. A habitual mental attitude of sus- 
picion will tend to impart the appearance of 
the "suspicious peering" to our eyes. The 
mental attitude of combativeness will like- 
wise give us the traditional set jaw and 
tightly compressed lips. The mental attitude 
of lack of self-respect will show itself in 
our walk, and so, in the opposite manner with 
the mental attitude of self-respect. People 

The Outer Phase: Personality 45 

grow to walk, talk, carry themselves, and 
"look like" their habitual mental attitude. 

Dr. A. T. Schofield, says: " 'He is a dull 
scholar,' it is said, 'who cannot read a man's 
character even from a back view.' Round a 
statue of the prince Consort in Edinburgh 
stand representative groups paying homage 
to him. If you get a back view of any of 
these you can see unconscious mind impressed 
on matter, and can tell at once the sailor or 
soldier, peasant or scholar or workman. 
Look at the body and face of a man when 
the mind is gone. Look at the body of a man 
who has lost his self-respect. Look at the 
body of a thief, of a sot, of a miser. Compare 
the faces and expressions of a philanthropist, 
of a beggar, of a policeman, of a scholar, of 
a sailor, of a lawyer, of a doctor, of a shop- 
walker, of a sandwich man, of a farmer, of 
a successful manufacturer, of a nurse, of a 
refined girl, of a servant, of a barmaid, of a 
nun, of a ballet dancer, of an art student, 
and answer to yourself these two questions: 
First, are these different expressions of body 
and face due essentially to physical or 
psychical causes? And, secondly, do these 

46 Human Nature 

psychical causes act on the facial and other 
muscles in consciousness or out of conscious- 
ness. The only possible answers to these two 
questions leave us with this .fact, were no 
other proof possible, that we each have 
within us an unconscious psychical power 
(here called the unconscious mind) which has 
sufficient force to act upon the body and dis- 
play psychical conceptions through physical 

It is impossible for us (at least by any of 
the five senses) to peer into the mental cham- 
ber of other men and there read the record 
of their character, or to interpret the com- 
bination of Human Nature therein moulded 
and formed. But nevertheless we are not 
balked in our desire, for by learning to inter- 
pret the outward signs of personality we may 
arrive with a wonderful degree of success at 
an understanding of the character, mind, or 
Human Nature in others. From the seen 
Outer we may deduce the unseen Inner. We 
may discern the shape of that which is con- 
cealed, by observing the form of the covering 
which hides it from sight. The body, like the 
fabled veil of the goddess, "conceals but to 
reveal. ' ' 



The student of Human Nature soon dis- 
covers that among men, as among the ani- 
mals, there is to be observed a great variety of 
"quality," and various classes of "tempera- 
ment." Among cattle we notice great differ- 
ences of form which differences indicate cer- 
tain qualities inherent in the beast. Certain 
qualities are recognized by their outward 
forms as being indicative of sturdiness, stay- 
ing-qualities, strong vitality, etc., which ren- 
der their possessor valuable for draught 
oxen. Other qualities indicate the value of 
another animal for meat producing. Others, 
the production of large quantities of milk. 
Others, prolific breeding. And, so on, each 
set of qualities being recognized by its out- 
ward form and being taken into considera- 
tion by breeders. In the same way, breeders 
recognize certain qualities in horses which 
they take advantage of in breeding for the 
strength of draught horses; the speed of 
thoroughbred runners and trotters; the docil- 


48 Human Nature 

ity and gentleness of driving horses and 
saddle animals. The draught horse and the 
thoroughbred runner or trotter may be easily 
distinguished by the eye of the average per- 
son, while it requires the eye of the expert 
to distinguish other points and signs of qual- 
ity which prove the existence of certain traits 
of temperament in the animal. The same is 
true in the case of chickens and other fowls. 
Some types are adapted for laying, others for 
meat purposes, others for gameness, etc. 
Not only the physical qualities but also the 
temperamental traits of the beast or bird are 
distinguished by the expert, and are taken 
advantage of in breeding to develop and 
evolve the indicated trait or quality. 

Nearly anyone may distinguish the tem- 
peramental difference between the savage 
dog and the affectionate one— between the 
vicious horse and the docile one. We know 
at once that certain dogs may be approached 
and others kept at a distance— that certain 
horses are safe to ride or drive, and that 
others are unsafe and dangerous. A visit to 
a horse and cattle show, or a poultry and 
pigeon exhibition, will show even the most 

The Temperaments 49 

skeptical person that Inner States manifest 
in Outer Form. And a little further study 
and observation will show that what is true 
of these lower animals is likewise true of the 
human being. Men, like animals, may be in- 
telligently and scientifically classified accord- 
ing to the general "quality" or "tempera- 
ment. ' ' While each individual is different in 
a way from every other individual, neverthe- 
less, each individual belongs to a certain class 
and may be labelled accordingly. A few out- 
ward signs will indicate his class, and we 
may confidently expect that he will manifest 
the leading qualities of that particular class. 


The first classification of the individuals 
of the human race is that of Quality. Inde- 
pendent of the various temperaments, al- 
though in a way related to them, we find the 
various degrees of Quality manifested by dif- 
ferent individuals. "Quality" may be de- 
fined as the "degree of fineness.'' 1 It is that 
which we call "class" in race-horses; 
"breed" in other animals and often "blood" 
in men and women. Perhaps one may under- 

50 Human Natuee 

stand the classification better if he will recall 
the differences apparent between the mongrel 
cur and the highbred dog ; the ' ' scrub ' ' horse 
and the thoroughbred; the common cow and 
the carefully bred Alderney or other choice 
variety ; the ordinary barnyard fowl and the 
prize-winner at the poultry show. It is an 
intangible but real and readily recognized 
difference, which however is almost impos- 
sible to convey by words. 

Men and women of the highest Quality are 
essentially fine-grained, possessed of fine 
feelings, refined natures, high tastes, and 
manifest the signs of true natural refine- 
ment and culture, which cannot be success- 
fully imitated by those who have acquired 
merely the artificial manner and the outward 
polish. One may possess Quality in a high 
degree and still be ignorant of the forms and 
little manners of so-called "polite society," 
and yet will be recognized as one of " Na- 
ture's noblemen," and as a "natural gentle- 
man. ' ' 

Descending the scale we find lessening de- 
grees of the manifestation of Quality, until, 
finally we reach the lowest degree of the 

The Temperaments 51 

scale, that of low Quality. In this lowest de- 
gree we find individuals showing all the out- 
ward signs of being coarse-grained, vulgar, 
of low tastes, brutal instincts, and manifest- 
ing the signs of lack of refinement and cul- 
ture. Persons of low Quality are found in 
all walks of life. Some of those possessing 
wealth and education belong to this class, 
and are never able to counterfeit the reality. 
Quality is a matter of "soul," and not of 
wealth, education or material advantages. A 
greyhound and a hyena give us animal sym- 
bols of Quality, high and low. 

We meet many instances in which the indi- 
vidual is of too high Quality for his environ- 
ment, occupation or place in life. Such in- 
dividuals suffer keenly and are to be pitied. 
They incline toward high ideals and are 
wounded and discouraged by the grossness 
which they see on all sides. Those individ- 
uals of an average degree of Quality of 
course fit into the usual environment far 
better than those above or below them in the 
scale. We also meet individuals of low 
Quality in surroundings in which they are 
out of place — we see many instances of "pigs 

52 Human Nature 

in the parlor." These individuals, however, 
find it much easier to descend to their own 
level, than it is for the high Quality indi- 
viduals to ascend to theirs. The coarse man 
finds but little trouble in meeting with boon 
companions whose tastes are harmonious to 
his. The person of extremely high Quality 
may be said to have been born before his 
time, while those of the lowest Quality are 
atavistic and born after their time. Remem- 
ber, always, that Quality is an attribute of 
' ' soul, ' ' and not of birth, wealth, or even of 
education. We may find many "gentlemen" 
of humble birth, small means and limited 
education; and also many "educated pigs" 
of high lineage and full coffers. 

The Outer Form of Quality is shown by 
the relative fineness of general structure, 
and by the general form, appearance, man- 
ner, motion, voice, laughter, and more than 
all by that indescribable impression of "fine- 
ness" and "distinction" which they produce 
upon observing persons with whom they come 
in contact. 

It must be remembered that Quality is a 
very different thing from intellectuality or 

The Temperaments 53 

morality. A high Quality person may be im- 
moral and not specially intellectual, although 
there is almost always a keenness of percep- 
tion, and almost intuitive recognition, in these 
cases— the immorality is generally lacking in 
coarseness, and is usually connected with 
perversion of the aesthetic faculties. In the 
same way, the person of low Quality often 
may be moral according to the code, but will 
be coarse in the manifestation of that virtue, 
and may possess a certain low cunning which 
with many persons passes for intellect and 
"brains." In speaking of Quality, the words 
"fineness" and "coarseness" come easily to 
the mind and tongue and are perhaps the 
terms most suggestive of the two extremes of 
this attribute of the Man. 


Next in the order of consideration we find 
what is called Temperament. Temperament 
is defined as: "That individual peculiarity 
of organization by which the manner of act- 
ing, feeling and thinking of each person is 
permanently affected; disposition or consti- 

54 Human - Natuke 

tution of the mind, especially as regards the 
passions and affections." 

Hippocrates, the ancient Greek philoso- 
pher-physician (B. C. 468—367) held to the 
existence of four temperaments, which he at- 
tributed to certain qualities of the blood and 
the several secretions of the body such as the 
bile, etc. While his theory was rejected by 
later investigators, his classification contin- 
ued until very recently under the name of 
(1) the Sanguine; (2) the Lymphatic or 
Phlegmatic; (3) the Choleric or Bilious; and 
(4) the Melancholic temperaments, respect- 
ively. As a matter of general information 
on the subject we herewith give the old classi- 
fication with the attributes of each class : 

The Sanguine temperament was held to be 
characterized by red or light-brown hair, 
blue eyes, a fair or ruddy complexion, large 
arteries and veins, a full and rapid pulse, 
slight perspiration, impatience of heat, febrile 
tendency, and lively and cheerful temper, ex- 
citable passions, a warm, ardent, impulsive 
disposition, and a liking for active pursuits; 

The Lymphatic, or Phlegmatic tempera- 
ment was held to be characterized by light, 

The Temperaments 55 

sandy, or whitish hair, light grey eyes, pallid 
complexion, skin almost devoid of hair, flabby 
tissues, much perspiration, small blood-ves- 
sels, a feeble and slow pulse, want of energy, 
lack of activity, deficient spirit and vividness ; 

The Choleric or Bilious temperament was 
held to be characterized by black hair often 
curling, black or hazel eyes, and dark but 
ruddy complexion, hairy skin, strong full 
pulse, firm muscles, great activity and posi- 
tiveness, strength of character, and an active 

The Melancholic temperament was held to 
be characterized by black hair, black or hazel 
eyes, a dark leaden complexion, pulse slow 
and feeble, and a disposition toward study, 
poetry, literature, and sentiment. 

Some later authorities added a fifth tem- 
perament, called the Nervous temperament, 
which was held to be characterized by a 
medium complexion, large brain, small physi- 
cal frame, fineness of organization, thin hair, 
finely cut features, quick lively disposition, 
intellectual tastes and tendencies, sensitive 
nature, high capacity for enjoyment and 

56 Human Nature 

The latest authorities, however, discarded 
the old classification and adopted one more 
simple although fully as comprehensive. The 
new classification recognizes three classes of 
temperament, viz: (1) the Vital; (2) the Mo- 
tive; and (3) the Mental, the characteristics 
of which are held to be as follows : 

The Vital temperament has its basis in the 
predominance of the nutritive system, includ- 
ing the blood-vessels, lymphatics and the 
glands. Its organs are the heart, lungs, 
stomach, liver, bowels, and the entire internal 
vital system. It is characterized by a large, 
broad frame; broad shoulders; deep chest; 
full round abdomen; round plump limbs; 
short thick neck; comparatively small hands 
and feet ; full face ; flushed and florid cheeks ; 
and general "well fed" appearance. Those 
in whom it is predominant are fond of out-of- 
door exercise, although not of hard work; 
crave the "good things of life;" fond of 
sport, games and play ; love variety of enter- 
tainment and amusement; are affectionate; 
love praise and flattery; prefer concrete 
rather than abstract subjects of thought ; look 
out for themselves ; are selfish, but yet ' ' good 

The Tempeeaments 57 

fellows" when it does not cost too much physi- 
cal discomfort to themselves; usually enjoy 
good health, yet when ill are apt to be very 
weak ; tend to f everishness and apoplexy, etc. 

Persons of the Vital temperament may 
have either fair or dark complexion, but in 
either case the cheeks and face are apt to be 
ruddy and flushed. Those of the dark type 
are apt to have greater power of endurance, 
while those of the light type are apt to be 
more sprightly and active. This tempera- 
ment is particularly noticeable in women, a 
large proportion of whom belong to its class. 
This temperament furnishes the majority of 
the good companions, sociable friends and 
acquaintances, and theatre goers. A leading 
phrenologist says of them that they "incline 
to become agents, overseers, captains, hotel- 
keepers, butchers, traders, speculators, poli- 
ticians, public officers, aldermen, contractors, 
etc., rather than anything requiring steady or 
hard work." We have noticed that a large 
number of railroad engineers and policemen 
are of this temperament. 

The Motive temperament has as its basis 
the predominance of the motive or median- 

58 Human Nature 

ical system, including the muscles, bones and 
ligaments— the general system of active work 
and motion. Its organs are those of the en- 
tire framework of the body, together with 
those muscles and ligaments, large and small, 
general and special, which enable man to 
walk, move, and work. It is characterized by 
strong constitution, physical power, strong 
character, active feeling, and tendency toward 
work; large bones and joints; hard muscles; 
angular and rugged figure; usually broad 
shoulders and deep chest; comparatively 
small and flat abdomen; oblong face; large 
jaw; high cheek-bones; strong large teeth; 
bushy coarse hair; rugged features and 
prominent nose, ears, mouth, etc. Those in 
whom it is predominant are fond of physical 
and mental work; are tenacious and try to 
carry through what they undertake; resist 
fatigue ; are "good stayers;" are full of 
dogged persistence and resistance; and are 
apt to manifest creative effort and work. 

Persons of the Motive temperament may 
have either dark or light complexion. The 
Scotch or 'Scandanavian people show this 
temperament strongly, as also do a certain 

The Temperaments 59 

type of Americans. The world's active 
workers come chiefly from this class. This 
temperament is far more common among 
men than among women. The righting na- 
tions who have in different times swept over 
other countries display this temperament 
strongly. This temperament, predominant, 
although associated with the other tempera- 
ments has distinguished the "men who do 
things" in the world's history. It's "raw- 
bone" and gawkiness has swept things be- 
fore it, and has built up great things in all 
times. Its individuals have a burning desire 
to "take hold and pull," or to "get together 
and start something." As the name implies, 
this temperament is the "moving force" in 

The Mental temperament has its basis in 
the predominance of the nervous system, in- 
cluding the brain and spinal cord. Its or- 
gans are the brain, or brains ; the spinal cord 
with its connecting nerves — in fact the entire 
nervous system, including the "sympathetic" 
nervous system, the various plexi, and the 
nervous substance found in various parts of 
the body. It is characterized by a light 

60 Human Nature 

build; slight frame; comparatively large 
head ; quick movements ; sharp features ; thin 
sharp nose; thin lips; sharp and not very 
strong teeth; keen, penetrating eye; higli 
forehead and upper head ; fondness for brain 
work; disinclination for physical drudgery; 
sensitive nature; quick perception; rapid 
mental action; developed intuition; fine and 
shapely features; expressive countenance, 
expressive and striking voice, generally 
rather "high-strung," vividness and intens- 
ity of emotion and feeling, etc. 

Persons of this temperament are apt to 
be more or less "intense;" enjoy and suffer 
keenly ; are sensitive to reproach or criticism ; 
are inclined to be sedentary ; take a pleasure 
in "thinking," and often burn their candle of 
life at both ends, because of this tendency; 
and incline to occupations in which their 
brains rather than their body is exercised. 
They may be either of dark or of light com- 
plexion, and in either case are apt to have 
bright, expressive eyes. The impression 
created by an examination of their physical 
characteristics is that of sharpness. The 
fox, weasel, greyhound, and similar animals 

The Temperaments 61 

illustrate this type. Persons of this tem- 
perament are apt to be either very good or 
very bad. They run to extremes, and some- 
times execute a quick "right about face." 
When properly balanced, this temperament 
produces the world's greatest thinkers along 
all lines of thought. When not properly bal- 
anced it produces the abnormally gifted 
"genius," between whom and the unbalanced 
person there is but a slender line of division ; 
or the eccentric person with his so-called 
"artistic temperament," the "crank" with 
his hobbies and vagaries, and the brilliant 
degenerate who dazzles yet horrifies the 


The best authorities agree in the belief 
that the Balanced Temperament is the most 
desirable. That is, the condition in which the 
three temperaments balance each other per- 
fectly, so that the weak points of each are 
remedied by the strong points of the others, 
and the extremes of each are neutralized and 
held in check by the influence of the others. 
Prof. 0. S. Fowler, the veteran phrenologist 

62 Human Nature 

says upon this point: "A well balanced or- 
ganism, with all the temperaments large and 
in about equal proportion, is by far the best 
and most favorable for both enjoyment and 
efficiency; to general genius and real great- 
ness; to strength along with perfection of 
character ; to consistency and power through- 
out. The Motive large, with the Mental defi- 
cient, gives power with sluggishness, so that 
the powers lie dormant; adding large Vital 
gives great physical power and enjoyment, 
with too little of the Mental and the moral, 
along with coarseness; while the Mental in 
excess creates too much mind for body, too 
much exquisiteness and sentimentality for the 
stamina, along with a green-house precocity 
most destructive of life's powers and pleas- 
ures ; whereas their equal balance gives abun- 
dance of vital force, physical stamina, and 
mental power and susceptibility. They may 
be compared to the several parts of a steam- 
boat and its appurtenances. The Vital is 
the steam-power; the Motive, the hulk or 
framework; the Mental, the freight or pas- 
sengers. Predominant Vital generates more 
vital energy than can well be worked off, 

The Temperaments 63 

which causes restlessness, excessive passion, 
and a pressure which endangers outbursts 
and overt actions ; predominant Motive gives 
too much frame or hulk, moves slowly, and 
with weak Mental, is too light-freighted to 
secure the great ends of life ? predominant 
Mental overloads, and endangers sinking; 
but all equally balanced and powerful, carry 
great loads rapidly and well, and accomplish 
wonders. Such persons unite cool judgments 
with intense and well-governed feelings; 
great force of character and intellect with 
perfect consistency; scholarship with sound 
common sense ; far seeing sagacity with bril- 
liancy; and have the highest order of both 
physiology and mentality." 

Professor Nelson Sizer, another high au- 
thority said: "In nature the temperaments 
exist in combination, one being, however, the 
most conspicuous. So rarely do we find ex- 
amples of an even mixture or balance, that it 
may be said that they who possess it are 
marvellous exceptions in the current of hu- 
man society. Such an even mixture would 
indicate a most extraordinary heritage; it 
would be constitutional perfection. But, 

64 Human Nature 

once in a while, a person is met in whom there 
is a close approach to this balance, and wo 
are accustomed to speak of it as a balanced 
temperament, it being difficult to determine 
which element is in predominance. 


The experience of the older phrenologists, 
which is verified by the investigations of the 
later authorities, was that in the majority of 
persons two of the temperaments are well 
developed, the third remaining comparatively 
undeveloped. Of the two active tempera- 
ments, one is usually found to be predomi- 
nant, although in many the two are found to 
be almost equally developed. But even in 
the last mentioned instance one of the two 
seems to have been more actively called forth 
by the environment of the person, and may 
therefore be regarded as the ruling tempera- 
ment. Arising from this fact we find the sev- 
eral classes of Mixed Temperament, known, 
respectively, as: the Vital-Motive; the Mo- 
tive-Vital; the Motive-Mental; the Mental- 
Motive; the Vital-Mental; and the Mental- 
Vital. In these classes the name of the pre- 

The Temperaments 65 

dominant, or most active temperament ap- 
pears first, the second name indicating the 
temperament relatively undeveloped or in- 

The Vital-Motive and the Motive-Vital 
temperaments give the combination in which 
is manifested physical activity and strong 
vitality. . Those of these temperaments are 
adapted to out-of-door work, such as farming, 
out-of-door trades, mechanics, soldiers and 
sailors, and other occupations requiring 
strong vital power and muscular strength 
and activity. The physical characteristics 
are the prominent bones and strong muscles 
of the Motive, and well-rounded limbs and 
"stout" forms of the Vital. When the Vital 
predominates, there is apt to be more flesh; 
when the Motive predominates there is apt 
to be more ruggedness and muscular develop- 

The Motive-Mental and Mental-Motive 
temperaments give the combination in which 
is manifested the physical activity of the Mo- 
tive and the mental activity of the Motive 
and the mental activity of the Mental— the 
physical and mental characteristics of the 

66 Human Nature 

Vital being absent. The Mental element re- 
lieves the Motive of some of its crudeness 
and roughness, while the Motive relieves the 
Mental of its tendency to get away from the 
practical side of things. The strong frame 
and muscles are balanced by the brain-de- 
velopment. Those of this temperament make 
good practical business men, physicians, 
lawyers, scientists, explorers, and others who 
have to work and think at the same time. 
These people often manifest great executive 
ability. When the Motive predominates, the 
tendency is toward out-of-door occupations 
in which the brain is used in connection with 
bodily activity. When the Mental predomi- 
nates there is a tendency toward in-door oc- 
cupations in which active brain work is re- 
quired. These people have well-developed 
heads, together with wiry, strong bodies. 
Some of the most successful men have come 
from this class. 

The Vital-Mental and Mental-Vital tem- 
peraments give the combination in which is 
manifested many attractive traits which ren- 
der their possessor agreeable, companion- 
able, and at the same time bright and intel- 

The Temperaments 67 

ligent. The Vital element gives a plumpness 
to the form, while the Mental imparts a 
brightness to the mind. This is the tempera- 
ment of many attractive women. The Men- 
tal activity tends to counterbalance the Vital 
tendency toward physical ease and comfort. 
These people make good orators, after dinner 
speakers, and agreeable society men and 
women, actors, artists, poets, and popular 
literary men. The respective predominance 
of the Mental or the Vital, in this combina- 
tion, gives to this class somewhat of a variety, 
but a little observation will soon enable one 
to recognize ihe individuals belonging to it. 
A certain combination in this class produces 
the trait of ''emotionality," or superficial 
feeling and sympathy. 

The student of Human Nature should pay 
much attention to Temperament and the out- 
ward indications of each class and sub-class, 
for Temperament gives us much of our best 
information regarding character and disposi- 
tion, in fact Character Reading depends ma- 
terially upon the interpretation of Tempera- 



We now approach the subject of the several 
particular mental qualities, and the groups 
thereof, both in the phase of their inner states 
and that of their outer form. In the consid- 
eration of both of these phases we must avail 
ourselves of the investigations and researches 
of the old phrenologists who cleared a path 
for all who follow. Although many of the 
phrenological theories are rejected by mod- 
ern psychologists and biologists, neverthe- 
less their work established a firm foundation 
for the science of the study of the brain and 
its functions. And to Gall and his followers 
we are indebted for the discovery and teach- 
ing that the activity and development of the 
several mental qualities or faculties mani- 
fest in outer form in the shape of the skull. 

The general principles of phrenology may 
be briefly stated as follows: 

I. The Brain is the organ of the mind. 

II. The mind is not a single entity or 
power, but has several faculties, stronger or 


Fig. 1 
the mental qualities 


70 Human Nature 

weaker, which determine the character of 
the individual. 

III. That each faculty or propensity has 
a special organ in the brain. 

IV. The size of the brain (the quality 
being equal) is the true measure of power. 

V. There are several groups of faculties, 
and each group is represented by organs lo- 
cated in the same region of the brain. 

VI. The relative size of each organ results 
from the activity of its appropriate faculty. 

VII. The size of the organ is indicated by 
the appearance and size of the skull imme- 
diately over the region of the organ. 

VIII. The Quality and Temperament of 
the organization determine the degree of 
vigor, activity, and endurance of the mental 

Modern psychology and biology claim to 
have disproven many of the phrenological 
contentions, while other lines of investiga- 
tion have given us other theories to account 
for the phenomena first noted by the phren- 
ologists. Some investigators of brain devel- 
opment and action hold that while certain 
mental states manifest in outer form on por- 

The Mental Qualities 71 

tions of the skull, the phenomenon is due to 
the action of the cranial muscles rather than 
to the fact of the localization of special facul- 
ties—that each mental state is associated 
with certain actions on the part of certain 
cranial muscles which in turn exert a modify- 
ing effect upon the shape and size of the 

As Erbes states it "the effect the scheme of 
cranial muscles have had and still have upon 
the conformation of the skull, and, conse- 
quently, had in determining the location of 
those areas and in giving brain and mind a 
character approximately identical from end 
to end of the scale of living things possessing 
the cerebro-spinal nervous system. In so far 
as the neural matter is dependent upon the 
cranial muscles— aside from the sensory 
stimuli— so far, likewise are the psychic 
manifestations, through tongue or limb, modi- 
fied by variations in those muscles that, after 
their creative task is done, assume a vaso- 
motor control over their respective areas/' 
The same writer also says: "The cerebral 
mass owes its location and subsequent expan- 
sion, moreover, in a measure that mind owes 

72 Human Nature 

its character, primarily to the action of the 
muscles attached to and lying upon its 
peripheral covering, the skull; these same 
muscles thereafter, through exercising a cer- 
ebral vasomotor control, act in the nature of 
keys for calling the evolved dependent brain 
areas into play, singly and en masse." 

Others have held that the development of 
certain areas of the surface of the skull is 
due to peculiar neural or nervous, activities 
having their seat in certain parts of the brain 
adjacent to their appropriate area of the 
skull, but these theories fail to explain the 
nature of the relation between the mind, 
brain and the "nerve centres" aforesaid. 

These several authorities, and others, how- 
ever, agree upon the fact that certain areas 
of the brain are associated in some way with 
certain mental states; and that these brain 
areas register their relative activity upon the 
areas of the skull adjacent thereto ; and that 
the activity and power of each brain area, or 
faculty, is denoted by the size of the asso- 
ciated skull-area. Thus, the outward facts 
claimed by phrenology are admitted, while 
their theories of cause are disputed. 

The Mental Qualities 73 

In this book we shall rest content with these 
" outward facts" of phrenology, and shall not 
concern ourselves with the various theories 
which seek to explain them, preferring to 
leave that task for others. In considering the 
subject of the Outer Form associated with 
the Inner State of Human Nature, we shall 
merely claim that mental states manifest in 
outer form in the shape and size of the head; 
and that certain areas of the skull are thus 
associated with certain mental states, the size 
and shape of the former denoting the degree 
of activity of the latter. 

The general scheme of classification of the 
various mental "faculties" of the phrenol- 
ogists, and the names given thereto by the 
old phrenologists, have in the main been ad- 
hered to in this book. In a number of cases, 
however, we have seen fit to re-arrange the 
groups in accordance with the later ideas of 
the New Psychology, and have given to some 
of the "faculties" names considered more 
appropriate to the later classification, and 
understanding of the mental state. More- 
over, in order to avoid the phrenological 
theories attaching thereto, we have decided 

74 Human Nature 

not to use the terms, "faculties," "propen- 
sities," and "sentiments," in referring to 
the several mental states ; and shall therefore 
use the term "Qualities" in the place thereof. 
The term "quality," while denoting "the 
condition of being such or such; nature rela- 
tively considered," does not carry with it 
the theory attached to the phrenological term 
"faculty." But the locality of the several 
qualities of "faculties" has not been dis- 
turbed or changed— the place where each 
quality manifests in outer form, as assigned 
in this book, agrees with that assigned by the 
old phrenologists, time having served to es- 
tablish the truth of the same, rather than 
to disprove it. 

The following is the classification and 
terminology adopted by us in this book in 
the consideration of the Mental Qualities. 
(See Fig. 1.) 

I. The Egoistic Qualities: Self-Esteem; 
and Approbativeness. 

II. The Motive Qualities: Combative- 
ness; Destructiveness ; Cunning; Cautious- 
ness; Acquisitiveness; and Constructiveness. 

III. The Vitative Qualities: Vitative- 
ness; Alimentativeness ; and Bibativeness. 

The Mental Qualities 75 

IV. The Emotive Qualities: Amative- 
ness; Conjugality; Parental Love; Sociabil- 
ity and Home-Love. 

V. The Applicative Qualities : Firmness ; 
and Continuity. 

VI. The Modificative Qualities: Ideal- 
ity; Infinity; and Humor. 

VII. The Relative Qualities: Human 
Nature; Suavity; Sympathy; and Imitation. 

VIII. The Perceptive Qualities: Obser- 
vation; Form; Size; Weight; Color; Order; 
Calculation; Tune; Time; Locality; Event- 
uality ; and Words. 

IX. The Reflective Qualities: Analy- 
sis ; and Logic. 

X. The Religio-Moral Qualities : Rever- 
ence; Mysticism; Optimism; and Conscien- 

In the following several chapters we shall 
consider each group, in turn, together with 
the particular Qualities of each group. It 
must be remembered that the poiver of each 
Quality is modified by the influence of the 
other Qualities. Therefore in judging the 
character of an individual, each and every 
Quality must be taken into consideration. 



The first group of Qualities is that known 
as the Egoistic Qualities, which is composed 
of two particular Qualities, known, respec- 
tively, as Self-Esteem; and Approbativeness. 
This group manifests outer form immedi- 
ately at the "crown" of the head, and on 
the sides directly beneath or "side of" the 
crown. (See Fig. 2.) It is the seat of the 
consciousness of Individuality and Person- 
ality, and the tendencies arising directly 

Self-Esteem. This Quality manifests in 
a strong sense of individual power, self- 
respect, self-help, self-reliance, dignity, com- 
placency, pride of individuality, and inde- 
pendence. In excess it tends to produce ego- 
tism, abnormal conceit, imperiousness, etc. 
Deficiency of it is apt to produce lack of con- 
fidence in self, humi]it} r , self-depreciation, 
etc. It gives to one the ambitious spirit, and 
the desire for executive positions and places 
of authority. It resents assumption of au- 


Fig. 2 
the egoistic qualities 


78 Human Nature 

thority on the part of others, and chafes un- 
der restraint. It renders its possessors dig- 
nified and desirous of the respectful recogni- 
tion of others. It manifests outer form on the 
middle line of the head, at the "crown" (see 
group figure) just above Approbativeness, 
where it may be perceived by reason of the 
enlargement of the "crown." When fully 
developed, it tends to draw back the head, 
so that the latter is held erect ; whereas, when 
deficient it allows the head to droop forward 
in an attitude lacking the appearance of 

Approbativeness. This Quality manifests 
in a strong desire for praise, approval, flat- 
tery, recommendation, fame, notoriety, good 
name, personal display, show and outward 
appearance. It is a form of pride different 
from that of Self -Esteem, for it is a vanity 
arising from personal things and outward 
appearances, whereas Self-Esteem gives a 
pride to the inner self or ego. Those in whom 
it is well-developed pay great attention to 
outward form, ceremony, etiquette, fashion, 
and social recognition, and are always to be 
found on the popular side and "with the 

The Egoistic Qualities 79 

crowd." They thrive upon praise, approval 
and notoriety, and shrink under censure, dis- 
approval or lack of notice. One with Self- 
Esteem can be happy when alone, and in fact 
often defies public opinion and fashion from 
very pride of self; while one with Approba- 
tiveness largely developed lacks the pride to 
rise above approval and the opinion of others, 
while possessing a strong sense of vanity 
when public favor is bestowed. It manifests 
outer form at the upper-back part of the 
head, just above Cautiousness and below Self- 
Esteem, (see group figure). When largely 
developed it rises like two mounts on either 
side of Self-Esteem, but when Self-Esteem is 
large and Approbativeness is small, the latter 
appears as two sunken places on either side 
of Self-Esteem. 

Self-Esteem values the real self while Ap- 
probativeness values the appearances of per- 
sonality. The one pursues the substance, the 
other the shadows. Self-Esteem and Appro- 
bativeness are often confused in the minds of 
the public. The true keynote of the first is 
Pride; of the second, Vanity. The student 
should learn to carefully distinguish between 

80 Human Nature 

these two Qualities. Approbativeness may 
cause one to make a monkey of himself in 
order to win notice, praise or laughter, while 
Self-Esteem will never sacrifice self-respect 
and pride in order to win applause. 



The second group is known as the Selfish 
Qualities, and is composed of the following 
particular Qualities: Combativeness; Des- 
tructiveness; Cunning; Cautiousness; Ac- 
quisitiveness and Construetiveness. This 
group manifests in outer form extending 
along the sides of the lower head from the 
back toward the temples. (See Fig. 3.) 

Combativeness. This Quality manifests 
in a strong desire to oppose, resist, combat, 
defy, defend. Those in whom it is developed 
enjoy a "scrap," and, in the words of the 
familiar saying, would "rather fight than 
eat." When combined with Vitativeness it 
manifests in the tendency to fight hard for 
life. When combined with Acquisitiveness it 
manifests in the tendency to fight for money 
or property. When combined with Amative- 
ness it manifests in the tendency to fight for 
mates. When combined with the family-lov- 
ing Qualities it manifests in a tendency to 
fight for the family. In fact, its particular 


Fig. 3 
the motive qualities 


The Motive Qualities 83 

direction is indicated by the development and 
combination of the other Qualities. It mani- 
fests in outer form at the sides of the lower- 
back part of the head, a little back of the top 
part of the ear (see group figure), giving, 
when developed, enlargement of that part of 
the head— a "broad back-head." The 
"broad-headed" animals, birds, and fish have 
this propensity well developed, while the 
"narrow-heads" have it in but a small de- 
gree. It is also indicated by the strong jaw, 
and by the mouth indicating a "strong bite." 
Destructtveness. This Quality, manifests 
in a strong desire to break precedents, doing 
things in new ways, asserting authority, ex- 
termination, severity, sternness , breaking 
down, crushing, "walking over," etc. Its di- 
rection is largely governed by the other Qual- 
ities, as for instance in combination with 
Acquisitiveness, it manifests in breaking 
down opposition and precedents in business ; 
while with large conscientiousness it mani- 
fests in tearing down evil conditions, etc., 
and in doing the work of "reform." It gen- 
erally is accompanied with large Combative- 
ness, as the two go hand-in-hand. It mani- 

84 Human Nature 

fests outer form directly above, and back of 
the top-part of the ear (see group figure). 

Cunning. This Quality manifests in a 
strong desire to be cunning, sly, close- 
mouthed, diplomatic, deceitful, and generally 
1 l foxy. " It is best illustrated by the example 
of the fox, which animal combines in itself 
many of its qualities. The coyote also shows 
signs of having this Quality well developed, 
as do birds of the crow and blackbird family, 
and certain fishes. With strong Caution it 
renders one very secretive and "close- 
mouthed." With strong Acquisitiveness it 
renders one sly and tricky in business. With 
strong Approbativeness it renders one apt to 
tell lying stories which magnify his impor- 
tance and gratify his vanity. With a vivid 
Imagination it inclines one to draw on that 
quality and lie for the very love of romanc- 
ing. It manifests outer form a little distance 
above the top of the ear, immediately above 
Destructiveness, and back of Acquisitiveness 
(see group figure). 

Cautiousness. This Quality manifests in 
a strong desire to avoid danger or trouble; 
carefulness, prudence, watchfulness, anxiety, 

The Motive Qualities 85 

self-protection, etc. In excess it is apt to 
render one fearful, over-anxious, and even 
cowardly, but in combination with other 
Qualities it tends to give to one a balance 
and to restrain him from rashness and un- 
necessary risk. Its direction is also largely 
influenced by the development of other Quali- 
ties. Thus with large Acquisitiveness it makes 
one veiy cautious about money matters ; with 
large family qualities it renders one very 
careful about the family ; with large Approba- 
tiveness it renders one bashful, self conscious, 
and fearful of adverse criticism. It manifests 
outer form toward the upper-back part of the 
head, directly over Secretiveness (see group 
figure), and when developed is apparent by 
the enlargement of the comparatively large 
area covered by it. An old phrenological 
authority says of it : * ' This is the easiest found 
of all the organs. . . . Starting at the mid- 
dle of the back part of the ears, draw a per- 
pendicular line, when the head is erect, 
straight up to where the head begins to slopp 
back in forming the top, and Caution is lo- 
cated just at the first turn. ' ' 

Acquisitiveness. This Quality manifests 

86 Human Nature 

in a strong desire either to acquire, or else 
to hold property, money, or general objects 
of possession. In some cases it contents it- 
self with merely ' ' getting, ' ' while in others it 
also "holds on" to what is secured, the dif- 
ference arising from the combinations of the 
other Qualities. In itself, it may be said to 
be merely the tendency toward " hoarding 
up," but the combination with large Com- 
bativeness and Destructiveness enlarges its 
scope and tends to make its possessor ra- 
pacious and grasping. It is the instinct of 
the squirrel and the bee, and even the dog 
manifests it when he buries a bone for future 
gnawing purposes. Those in whom it is de- 
veloped in connection with large Caution, 
manifest a strict economy and even miser- 
liness, while in others it expends itself in 
merely the getting for the sake of the getting, 
the possessions often being scattered prodig- 
ally afterward, the element of Approbative- 
ness entering largely into the latter action. 
It manifests outer form in the lowest-middle 
section of the head, directly over Alimentive- 
ness (see group figure). 

Constructiveness. This Quality mani- 

The Motive Qualities 87 

fests in a strong desire to invent, construct, 
build, create, put together, improve upon, 
add to, readjust, etc. It manifests along three 
general lines, namely (1) Invention; (2) Con- 
struction; and (3) Materialization, by which 
is meant the "making real" of ideals previ- 
ously entertained— the "making come true" 
of the dreams previously experienced— the 
materialization of the ideas, plans, and pro- 
jects previously visualized. This Quality 
causes the person to improve, alter, tinker 
with, build up, invent, and create along the 
lines of his vocation or avocation. These 
people find it difficult to refrain from tinker- 
ing with, altering, or "improving" anything 
and everything with which they have to do. 
With large Logic, Analysis, and Perceptives 
they manifest inventive ability; with large 
Imitation they are fond of copying and con- 
structing after models; with large Ideality 
they work toward making their dreams come 
true. This Quality is not confined to me- 
chanical construction, as the old phrenologists 
taught, but manifests itself in business litera- 
ture, art, and in fact in every vocation or oc- 
cupation. With large Destructiveness, it 

88 Human Nature 

builds up new structures upon the ruins 
created by that Quality. In persons of the 
Motive temperament it inclines toward me- 
chanical invention, creation and construction ; 
while in persons of the Mental temperament 
it manifests in creating and constructing 
ideas, thoughts, theories, scientific classifica- 
tion, literary productions, etc., and in per- 
sons of the Vital temperament it manifests 
in creating and improving upon things cal- 
culated to appeal to persons of that class. 
It manifests outer form in the lower and 
frontal part of the temples, backward and 
upward from the outer corner of the eye-brow 
(see group figure). Prof. 0. S. Fowler says. 
"In broad-built and stocky persons it causes 
this part of the temples to widen and bulge 
out, but in tall, long-headed persons it spreads 
out upon them, and hence shows to be less 
than it really is." It is directly below Ideal- 
ity and in front of Acquisitiveness. 



The third group is known as the Vitative 
Qualities, which is composed of the three 
respective particular Qualities : Vitativeness; 
Alimentativeness ; and Bibaliveness. This 
group manifests in outer form directly back 
of, and in front of, the middle part of the 
ear. (See Fig. 4.) 

Vitativeness. This quality manifests in 
a strong desire to live; resistance to disease 
and death; an intense clinging to life for the 
mere fact of living, rather than for the sake 
of anything to be accomplished by continued 
existence. It goes along with Combativeness, 
and is especially noticeable in the "broad- 
headed" people and animals. The cat tribe, 
hawks, turtles, sharks, venomous snakes, and 
others have this propensity well developed, 
while it is deficient in the "narrow-headed" 
animals, such as the rabbit, certain birds, cer- 
tain fish, and many harmless snakes. Those 
in whom it is developed "die hard," while 
those in whom it is deficient die easily. This 


Fig. 4 
the vitative qualities 


The Vitative Qualities 91 

capacity manifests in outer form in the area 
situated just back of the middle part of the 
ear (see group figure). 

Alimentiveness. This Quality manifests 
in a strong desire to gratify the tastes for 
food, when large it inclines one toward glut- 
tony, and tends to make one "live to eat," 
instead of to "eat to live." Those in whom 
it is largely developed eat heartily and like 
to see others doing the same ; while those in 
whom it is deficient care very little for the 
quality or amount of their food and often 
actually resent the, to them, "disgusting" 
sight of persons partaking of a hearty meal. 
It manifests in outer form immediately in 
front of the upper part of the ear (see group 

Bibativeness. This Quality manifests in a 
strong desire to gratify the appetite for 
drinks of various kinds. In its normal well- 
developed state it manifests in a desire for 
water, milk and fluid foods, such as soups, 
broths, etc., and other juicy things. Per- 
verted it manifests in the appetite for intoxi- 
cating liquors, tea and coffee, "soft drinks," 
and the various decoctions of the modern 

92 Human Nature 

soda-fountain. By some this Quality is re- 
garded as merely a phase of Alimentiveness, 
while others consider it to be a separate Qual- 
ity. It manifests in outer form immediately 
in front of the locality of Alimentiveness, 
toward the eye. 



The fourth group is that known as the 
Social Qualities, which group is composed of 
the following particular Qualities: Amative- 
ness; Conjugality; Parental Love; Sociabil- 
ity and Home Love. This group manifests 
outer form at the lower-back portion of the 
head (see Fig. 5), and shows itself by an 
enlargement of that region, causing the head 
to "bulge" back of the ears. It may best be 
understood by an examination of its several 
particular Qualities. 

Amativeness. This Quality manifests in 
a strong desire for sexual indulgence and as- 
sociation with the opposite sex. Its purpose 
is, of course, the reproduction of the race, but 
its abuse and perversion has led man to many 
excesses and unnatural practices. It is a 
dynamic propensity and its normal develop- 
ment is seemingly necessary in order to pro- 
duce the "life spirit," and vital activity men- 
tal and physical. Those in whom it is defi- 
cient lack "spirit" and energy, while those 


Fig. 5 
the emotive qualities 


The Emotive Qualities 95 

in whom it is developed to excess tend to 
lean toward excesses. When developed 
normally it seems to add an attractiveness 
or "magnetism" to its possessors; when 
deficient it renders the person "cold" non- 
magnetic and unattractive; when over-devel- 
oped and unrestrained it causes the person 
to become disgusting and repulsive to the 
normal person; vulgar, licentious and de- 
praved. Its seat is in the cerebellum or 
"little brain," and it manifests outer form 
by an enlarged "fullness" at the nape of the 
neck, at the base of the skull (see group fig- 
ure). It tends to cause the head to lean back- 
ward and downward at the nape of the neck. 
It also manifests by fullness of the lips, par- 
ticularly in their middles. The lips and po- 
sition of the head of persons in whom this 
quality is largely developed is indicative of 
the attitude and position of kissing. Spurz- 
heim says of it: "It is situated at the top 
of the neck, and its size is proportionate to 
the space between the mastoid process, im- 
mediately behind the ears, and the occipital 
spine, in the middle of the hind head. " It is 
noticeable that those in whom this quality 

96 Human Nature 

is fully or largely developed seem to have 
the power of attracting or "charming" those 
of the opposite sex, while those who are de- 
ficient in it lack this quality. 

Conjugality. This quality manifests in 
a strong desire for a "mate"— and one mate 
only. While Amativeness may cause one to 
seek the society of many of the opposite sex, 
Conjugality will act only to cause one to seek 
the one life partner. Conjugality causes the 
desire to "mate for life." It is something 
quite different from Amativeness, although 
of course related to it. The location of its 
outer form, between Amativeness and 
Friendship, gives the key to its quality— love 
with companionship. Those in whom it is 
well developed are very close to their mates 
and tend toward jealousy; they suffer in- 
tensely when the relation is inharmonious or 
disturbed in any way, and are often broken- 
hearted at disappointment in love or the 
death of the mate. Those in whom it is de- 
ficient feel very little true companionship for 
their mates, and with Amativeness large are 
apt to be promiscuous in their manifestation 
of love or passion ; if one love is interrupted 

The Emotive Qualities 97 

or interfered with they find little difficulty in 
shifting their affections. Those in whom it is 
strong are "true unto death," while those in 
whom it is weak are fickle, inconstant and 
lack loyalty. The Quality manifests outer 
form on each side of the lower-back of the 
head, just above Amativeness and just below 
Friendship, and on either side of Parental 
Love— the location being especially indica- 
tive of its nature (see group figure). 

Parental Love. This Quality manifests 
in a strong desire for and love of children, 
particularly one's own. Those in whom it is 
very strong often adopt children in addition 
to their own and love to caress children wher- 
ever and whenever they may see them. It 
manifests outer form at the lower-back part 
of the head on the middle-line of the head, 
above Amativeness, and below Inhabitive- 
ness (see group figure). 

Sociability. This Quality manifests in 
a strong desire for companionship, fellow- 
ship, friends, sympathy, society, associates, 
etc. It is the "social sense." Those in whom 
it is strong feel happy only when surrounded 
by associates, friends or boon companions. 

98 Human Nature 

They incline toward lodges, clubs and social 
gatherings. To be alone is to suffer, to such 
people. Those in whom it is weak prefer to 
be alone, or at the best with a few carefully 
chosen companions, and avoid promiscuous 
friendships and social gatherings. It mani- 
fests outer form just above Conjugality, and 
at the sides of Parental love and Inhabitive- 
ness, and directly back of Cautiousness and 
the upper-part of Combativeness (see group 

Home-Love. This Quality manifests in a 
strong love of familiar places, particularly 
of one's home and near-by country, and from 
this springs love of country and patriotism. 
Those in whom it is strong dislike to travel, 
and are subject to home-sickness. Those in 
whom it is weak are fond of travel, readily 
change their places of abode, and are apt 
to become "roamers" if they indulge the 
Quality. When over large, it inclines one 
toward narrowness, sectionalism and pro- 
vincialism; when small, it inclines one 
toward frequent moves, and changes of resi- 
dence and location. It manifests outer form 
at the back part of the head, on the middle- 

The Emotive Qualities 99 

line, directly above Parental Love and below 
Continuity (see group figure). When it is 
large it tends to produce a ridge, flat-iron- 
shape and pointing upward; when small, it 
presents a depression sufficient to contain the 
ball of the finger. Its close connection to 
Continuity, on the one hand, and Parental 
Love on the other, is very suggestive. 



The fifth group, known as the Applicative 
Qualities, is composed of two particular 
Qualities, known, respectively, as Firmness 
and Continuity. This group manifests in 
outer form on the centre-line of the head, 
just above and just below the "crown," 
at which latter point Self-Esteem is situated 
(see Fig. 6). 

Firmness. This Quality manifests in a 
strong tendency toward stability, tenacity, 
fixedness of purpose, and decision. When 
very highly developed with the reasoning 
powers weak it often manifests as stubbor- 
ness, mulishness, obstinacy, etc. Those in 
whom it is largely developed display firm- 
ness in decision, are "set in their ways," 
cannot be driven by force or converted by 
argument when they have once formed an 
opinion and taken a stand. The "indomi- 
table will" arises from this Quality, in fact 
this Quality might well be termed the "Will 
Quality," although it manifests by that as- 


Fig. 6 
the applicative qualities 


102 Human Nature 

pect of Will which shows itself as fixedness, 
while its companion Quality, that of Conti- 
nuity, manifests the phase of Will known as 
"stick-to-it-iveness." Persons in whom 
Firmness is largely developed make certain 
decisions and then abide by them. They 
may be coaxed but never driven. Prof. 0. S. 
Fowler, speaking of this Quality, said: "No 
man ever succeeded without great will-power 
to hold on and hold out in the teeth of oppos- 
ing difficulties. I never knew a man distin- 
guished for anything, not even crimes, to lack 
it. It is an indispensable prerequisite of 
greatness and goodness. Without it great 
talents are of little avail, for they accomplish 
little; but with it large, fair to middling ca- 
pacities accomplish commendable results. 
Success in life depends more on this than on 
any other single attribute." 

This Quality manifests outer form on the 
centre-line of the back part of the top head, 
just above Self-Esteem. The location may 
be ascertained by holding the head erect, 
drawing an imaginary line upward from the 
opening of the ears straight to the top of the 
head to the middle-line or centre of the top 

The Applicative Qualities 103 

of the head— the location is at this last-point. 
It is usually quite prominent, and in many 
men unusually large. When fully developed 
it gives a "tallness" to the head from the 
opening of the ears to top of head. When 
it is weak, there is apt to be a flatness or 
even a depression at the point of its location. 
It also manifests in a "stiff upper lip," that 
is a firm upper lip, the latter often being 
longer than ordinarily. A certain stiffness 
of the upper-lip is often noticed when Firm- 
ness is habitually asserted, or in cases when 
the Quality is temporarily called into play. 
The term "stiff upper lip" is more than a 
mere figurative expression. Combe says of 
this Quality: "When this organ predomi- 
nates it gives a peculiar hardness to the man- 
ner, a stiffness and uprightness to the gait, 
with a forcible and emphatic tone to the 

Continuity. This propensity manifests 
in a strong tendency to "stick-to" a thing 
once begun, until it is finished; a disincli- 
nation for change; a habit of patient work 
and thought ; a desire to do but one thing at 
a time; etc. It is difficult to interest these 

104 Human Nature 

people in new things— they hold fast to the 
old. They are naturally conservative and 
are averse to "new-fangled" things. They 
are plodders and steady workers, and run on 
like a clock when once wound up. They are 
apt to possess the power of long and con- 
tinued concentration upon anything which 
attracts their attention, although it is difficult 
to attract their attention to an entirely new 
thing. Prof. Sizer says: "Firmness gives a 
stiff, determined fortitude, decision of char- 
acter; it serves to brace up the other facul- 
ties to the work in hand. . . . Firmness 
gives determination and obstinacy of pur- 
pose, while Continuity gives a patient, per- 
fecting, plodding application. Of two stone- 
cutters with equal Firmness, they will be 
alike thorough and persevering, but if one 
has large Continuity he prefers to use the 
drill in one place for hours, while the other 
with small Continuity craves variety, and 
prefers to use the chisel in cutting and dress- 
ing the entire surface of the stone." 

Continuity in excess often manifests in 
"long-windedness," prosiness, boredom, pro- 
lixity and tiresomeness. When it is weak 

The Applicative Qualities 105 

there is manifested a "fiightiness," tendency 
to change, lack of concentration, attraction 
of the new, a shifting of base, change of mind, 
and general instability and lack of ' ' stick-to- 
itiveness." This Quality manifests outer 
form on the centre line of the top back of the 
head, just below the crown (Self -Esteem) 
and just above Inhabitiveness (see group 
figure). Eeference to the group figure will 
show that it is peculiar in shape, and forms a 
semi-circular arch over a part of the top- 
back head. When fully developed that part 
of the head is simply evenly rounded with 
swelling; when deficient it leaves a hollow, 
crescent shape, horns downward. In 
America we find the majority of people are 
weak in Continuity, while in certain other 
countries it is found largely developed in the 
majority of cases. This fact gives to Ameri- 
cans a benefit in certain directions and a 
weakness in others. 

Both Firmness and Continuity are mani- 
fested almost entirely in connection with the 
other Qualities, and are known almost alto 
gether in that way. In themselves they have 
almost abstract nature. In determining char- 

106 Human Nature 

acter, they must be taken largely into con- 
sideration, because their influence on the 
other Qualities is very great. In fact they 
may be said to determine the degree of appli- 
cation of the other Qualities. 



The sixth group is known as the Modifica- 
tive Qualities (called by the phrenologists 
"The Self-Perfecting Group"), which is 
composed of the following particular Quali- 
ties. Ideality, Infinity, and Humor, respect- 
ively. This group manifests outer form in 
the region of the temples, and when large 
gives width to the sides of the fore part of 
the head (See Figure 7). 

Ideality. This Quality could well be called 
the "Artistic" quality of the mind. It man- 
ifests in a strong desire for the beautiful, the 
ideal, the elegant, the polished, the graceful, 
the refined. It is also closely connected with 
the phase of mental activity called "Imagi- 
nation." Those in whom it is largely devel- 
oped manifest the artistic taste and tem- 
perament, the love of art, beauty and the 
ideal, the poetic spirit, the love of the re- 
fined and choice— and a corresponding dis- 
like for all opposed to these tastes and quali- 


Fig. 7 
the modificative qualities 


The Modificative Qualities 109 

Spurzheim says of it: "A poetic turn of 
mind results from a peculiar mode of feel- 
ing. Vividness, glow, exaltation, imagina- 
tion, inspiration, rapture, exaggeration, and 
warmth of expression are requisite for 
poetry. Poets depict a fictitious and imag- 
inary world. This faculty gives glow to the 
other faculties; impresses the poetical and 
ideal ; aspires to imaginary perfection in 
every thing; creates enthusiasm in friend- 
ship, virtue, painting, masie, etc.; produces 
sentimentality, and leads to delicacy and sus- 
ceptibility. It often acts with Spirituality 
(Mysticism), located adjoining it, in embel- 
lishing poetry with the mysterious and su- 
pernatural. Practical exaltation varies with 
this organ." 

Combe says : ' ' This faculty loves exquisite- 
ness, perfection, and the beau-ideal; gives 
inspiration to the poet; stimulates those fac- 
ulties which form ideas to create perfect 
scenes ; inspires man with a ceaseless love of 
improvement, and prompts him to form and 
realize splendid conceptions; imparts an ele- 
vated strain to language, and shows a splen- 
dor of eloquence and poetic feeling ; and gives 

110 Human Natuke 

to conversation a fascinating sprightliness 
and buoyancy— the opposite of dryness and 

In addition to the above characteristics, 
which are largely due to the co-operation of 
Mysticism, Infinity, and Reverence, there is 
another set of manifestations which were 
largely overlooked by the older phrenologists 
—the activity of the Imagination in connec- 
tion with Constructiveness. This combina- 
tion of Constructiveness and Ideality is 
found in the great scientists, inventors, great 
financiers, and others whose plans for "build- 
ing up" show that Ideality has been also very 
active in the direction of picturing "what 
may be" — the ideal which Construction 
makes real. In much mental constructive 
work, there is found the artistic element, 
which arises from Ideality. This Quality 
manifests outer form in the upper and fron- 
tal portion of the temples, just where the 
head begins to curve upward, and just in 
front of, or under, the edges of the hair (see 
group figure). It is just above Constructive- 
ness, and just below Mysticism and Imitation, 
a position which throws light on its several 
phases of manifestation above noted. 

The Modificative Qualities 111 

Infinity. This Quality manifests in a 
strong realization of the grand, the majestic, 
the vast, the illimitable, the infinite, the 
eternal, the absolute, the omnipotent, the om- 
nipresent, the omniscient. It is the realizing 
sense of The Great. Those in whom it is 
large are impressed by the sublime, the ma- 
jestic, the grand, in nature or in thought and 
conception. Niagara; the great work of the 
architect; the thunder-storm; the giant red- 
wood of California; the ocean; or the 
thoughts of Infinity, alike appeal to the one 
in whom this Quality is large. If Reverence 
be large, the trend of Infinity will be toward 
religious ideas— the greatness of God. If the 
intellectual faculties be in the ascendency, In- 
finity will lead to high conceptions of Space, 
Nature, the Infinite. If Ideality be large, 
Infinity will incline toward the grand and 
great in art. If Constructiveness be well de- 
veloped, Infinity will impel to the creation of 
great works, enterprises, buildings, schemes, 
or what not. Infinity influences everything 
in the direction of largeness and greatness. 
This Quality manifests in outer form on the 
side of the head, about midway between fore- 

112 Human Nature 

head and back-head, and about midway be- 
tween "top and bottom" of that part of the 
head which contains the brain (see group 
figure). It is back of Ideality, and in front 
of Cautiousness; below Optimism and above 
Acquisitiveness, on the side of the head 
where the upward curve begins. 

Humor. This Quality manifests in a 
strong appreciation of the ludicrous, humor- 
ous, ironical, facetious, and raillery. Spurz- 
heim says: "Those who write like Voltaire, 
Rabelais, Piron, Sterne, Rabener, Wieland, 
and all who are fond of jest, raillery, ridicule, 
irony, and comical conceptions, have the up- 
per and outer parts of the forehead imme- 
diately before Beauty (Ideality) of consid- 
erable size." Combe says: "I have found 
in the manifestations of those whose Wit 
(Mirthfulness) predominates over Causality 
(Logic) a striking love of the purely ludi- 
crous ; their great delight being to heap 
absurd and incongruous ideas together; ex- 
tract laughter out of every object; and en- 
joy the mirth their sallies created; and there- 
fore agree with Spurzheim that the senti- 
ment of the ludicrous is its primitive func- 

The Modificative Qualities 113 

tion." Those in whom it is very large are 
apt to be regarded as trifling and undignified, 
and people often lack respect for them. Those 
in whom it is weak are apt to be over-serious 
and dreary. A sense of humor is valuable 
in many ways, among which is its influence 
in letting us see the silly side of much pre- 
tentious nonsense which might otherwise de- 
ceive our [reason and judgment. Many a 
solemn and dignified fallacy or error can best 
be attacked through a laugh and a realiza- 
tion of its absurdity. This Quality manifests 
outer form on the upper and lateral part of 
the forehead (see group figure). It is just 
before Ideality and just below Imitation. 
When large it gives a square and prominent 
shape to this part of the forehead. 



The seventh group is known as the Relative 
Qualities, and is composed of the following 
four particular Qualities: Human Nature; 
Suavity; Sympathy; and Imitation; respec- 
tively. The designation "Relative" is ap- 
plied to this group, by reason of the fact that 
its activities are concerned with the relations 
between the individual and others of his kind. 
The group manifests outer form in the front- 
upper part of the head, beginning just above 
the line of the hair, from which it extends 
backward toward the top-head. (See Fig. 8.) 

Human Nature. This Quality manifests in 
a strong desire to read character, discern hu- 
man motives, interpret feelings and thoughts, 
and to hnoiv men and women thoroughly. 
Those in whom it is large seem to read the 
mind, motives and character of those whom 
they meet, in an almost intuitive manner— the 
ideas, feelings, thoughts, motives and designs 
of others seem like an open book to them. 
They are natural physiognomists, and under- 


Fig. 8 
the relative qualities 


116 Human Nature 

stand Human Nature in both its inner states 
and outer forms. This quality is largely de- 
veloped in successful salesmen, detectives, 
credit-men, politicians, and others whose suc- 
cess depends largely upon the ability to read 
the character of those with whom they come 
in contact. This Quality concerns itself with 
the entire subject matter of this book, and is 
of the utmost importance to every individual. 
It should be developed and trained. 

Prof. 0. S. Fowler explains its manifesta- 
tions, and at the same time directs one along 
the lines of its cultivation, as follows : "Scan 
closely all the actions of men, in order to as- 
certain their motives and mainsprings of ac- 
tion; look with a sharp eye at man, woman 
and child, all you meet, as if you would read 
them through; note particularly the expres- 
sion of the eye, as if you would imbibe what it 
signifies; say to yourself, what faculty 
prompted this expression and that action? 
drink in the general looks, attitude, natural 
language and manifestations of men, and 
yield yourself to the impressions naturally 
made on you; that is, study human nature 
both as a philosophy and a sentiment." 

The Eelative Qualities 117 

This Quality manifests in outer form on the 
middle-line of the summit of the forehead, 
just where the hair usually begins to appear, 
and from thence slightly upward around the 
curve (see group figure). It is directly above 
Analysis and is often mistaken for a continu- 
ation thereof. Its nearness to that Quality in- 
dicates its relationship thereto, the connec- 
tion being very close ; in fact, some authorities 
have treated it as a particular phase of An- 
alysis. It is directly in front of and below 
Sympathy, which position is also suggestive, 
for we must first understand the feelings of 
others before we can sympathize with them. 
It is between the two lobes of Suavity, which 
position is also suggestive, for Suavity de- 
pends upon an understanding of the character 
and feelings of others, in order that we may 
"fall in" with the same. In the same way 
Imitation, which closely adjoins it, depends 
upon Human Nature for its copying material. 
"When largely developed this Quality gives a 
peculiar fullness and height to the upper fore- 

Suavity. This Quality manifests in a 
strong desire to be agreeable, suave, pleasant, 

118 Human Nature 

polite and attractive to other people. Those 
in whom it is large possess a charming per- 
sonality; a "winning way;" are interesting 
and agreeable; polite, and often fascinating. 
They always say the right thing to the right 
person at the right time and right place. 
They sugar-coat unpleasant truths, and are 
natural diplomats. This is the Quality of 
Tact. These people are "all things to all 
men," and show every evidence of having 
"kissed the Blarney Stone," and of under- 
standing the manufacture and use of "soft 

With Human Nature large, they, as 
Prof. 0. S. Fowler says "know just how 
and when to take and hoodwink men; with 
Secretiveness (Cunning) large and Conscien- 
tiousness small, are oily and palavering, and 
flatter victims, and serpent-like salivate be- 
fore swallowing." When the adjoining Qual- 
ity of Humor is large, they add humor and wit 
to their other attractive qualities. This Qual- 
ity, in normal development, is the lubricant 
which makes the wheels of social and business 
intercourse run smoothly. In excess it ren- 
ders one "too smooth" and "oily;" while its 

The Relative Qualities 119 

deficiency renders one boorish, unattractive 
and disagreeable. It manifests in outer form 
in the upper-fore part of the head, about the 
hair-line, and on each side of Human Nature. 
It is just below Imitation, just above Logic, 
and touches the upper side of Mirthfulness 
(see group figure). Together with Human 
Nature, when both are large, it tends to give 
a squareness and fullness to the upper part of 
the forehead, and a somewhat angular turn 
to the forehead at that point. 

Sympathy. This Quality manifests in a 
strong feeling of kindness, compassion, benev- 
olence, sympathy, and desire to make and 
see others happy. Its manifestation is al- 
ways altruistic. When largely developed it 
causes one to feel the pains of others, and to 
be unhappy at the sight, thought or hearing 
of their pains and woes. When deficient or 
weak it allows the person to be callous to the 
misfortunes of others. When normally de- 
veloped it causes one to radiate Kindness, 
Sympathy and Compassion, but in excess it 
renders one miserable because of the con- 
sciousness of the "world-pain," and often 
causes one to be the victim of misplaced sym- 

120 Human Nature 

pathy and confidence. It is unnecessary to 
state that those in whom this propensity is 
strong are to be found serving their fellow- 
men in charitable, philanthropic, and educa- 
tional work. Some have it in such excess that 
they will impoverish themselves and their 
families in order to help perfect strangers 
or the race at large. It manifests outer form 
on the fore part of the top head, on the mid- 
dle-line, commencing just about where the 
hair begins and running back almost to the 
middle of the top-head. It is immediately in 
front of Eeverence. When large it tends to 
give the head a little forward tilt or inclina- 
tion, as if toward the person for whom sym- 
pathy is felt. In listening to a story awaken- 
ing sympathy, one naturally inclines the head 
a little forward. 

Imitation. This Quality manifests itself 
in the strong tendency to reproduce, copy, 
take pattern of, or mimic. It plays an impor- 
tant part in the work of the artist and the 
actor. It enables one in whom it is largely 
developed to enter into the ideas, plans and 
works of others ; to " catch their spirit ; ' ' and 
to reproduce their work or ideas. In connec- 

The Relative Qualities 121 

tion with Ideality it forms a large part of the 
artistic talent in all lines of creative work. 
With large Constructiveness and Ideality, it 
makes the inventor and the designer who build 
upon that which has gone before that which 
is new and original. With Self -Esteem small 
and Approbativeness large, this Quality will 
cause the person to "follow my leader" and 
imitate others, rather than to assert his own 
originality and creative power. This Quality 
is noticeable principally as a modifier of the 
other faculties and propensities. It mani- 
fests outer form on the upper sides of the 
forehead, toward the top of the head (see 
group figure). It lies just below Sympathy, 
and above Ideality; before Mysticism, and 
back of Suavity. 



The eighth group is known as the Percep- 
tive Qualities, composed of the following par- 
ticular Qualities, respectively: Observation; 
Form; Size; Weight; Color; Order; Calcula- 
tion; Tune; Time; Locality; Eventuality, and 
Words. This group manifests outer form in 
the lower part of the forehead, in the region 
of the eye. (See Fig. 9.) When large this 
group often gives to the upper forehead the 
appearance of "retreating" or sloping back- 
ward. Prof. 0. S. Fowler says of the appear- 
ance of those Qualities which manifest outer 
form under the eyebrows: "The following 
rule for observing their size obviates the ob- 
jection sometimes urged that the eyebrows 
and their arches prevent the correct diagnosis 
of these smaller organs crowded so thickly to- 
gether. The rule is: The shape of the eye- 
brows reveals the size, absolute and relative, 
of each, thus: When all are large, the eye- 
brow is long and arching; when all are defi- 
cient, it is short and straight ; when some are 


Fig. 9 
the perceptive qualities 


124 Human Nature 

large and others small, it arches over the 
large ones, but passes horizontally over those 
which are small. This rule is infallible." 
The other Qualities of the group, according 
to Prof. Sizer, "is located above the eyes, and 
. . . constitute about one-third of the 
depth of the forehead, beginning at the arch 
of the eye." 

Observation. This Quality was given the 
name of "Individuality" by the early phren- 
ologists, but this term is considered mislead- 
ing, owing to the later usage of that term. 
It manifests in a strong desire to observe, see, 
examine, inspect, and "know" the things of 
the objective life. Those in whom it is largely 
developed feel the insatiable urge of the in- 
quisitive spirit; they desire to investigate 
everything coming under their notice. Many 
little details in the objects or subjects in 
which they are interested are noticed by them, 
while overlooked by the majority of people. 

Prof. Sizer says of it that it ' ' gives a recog- 
nition of things and the special points and 
facts of subjects ; quickness of observation is 
an important element in the acquisition of 
knowledge. . . . Those in whom it is 

The Perceptive Qualities 125 

large are eager to see all that may be seen, and 
nothing escapes their attention. It opens the 
door for the action of all the other perceptive 
organs. . . . They are quick to notice 
everything that is presented to the eye ; and 
it goes farther, and enables us to recognize 
that which we touch, or sounds we hear. The 
rattling strokes of a drum are distinct noises, 
and each is an individuality." 

Prof. 0. S. Fowler, says: "It is adapted, 
and adapts men to the divisibility of matter, 
or that natural attribute which allows it to be 
subdivided indefinitely. Yet each division 
maintains a personal existence. It thus puts 
man in relation and contact with a world full 
of things for his inspection, as well as ex- 
cites in him an insatiable desire to examine 
everything. It is therefore the looking fac- 
ulty. Its distinctive office is to observe 
things. It asks: 'What is this?' and says, 
'Show me that!' . . . Before we can 
know the uses, properties, causes, etc., of 
things, we must first know that such things 
exist, and of this Observation informs us." 

This Quality is largely involved in the proc- 
ess of Attention. It usually manifests in the 

126 Human Nature 

form of involuntary attention, that is, atten- 
tion to interesting things. But, nnder the in- 
fluence of the will, with Firmness large, it 
manifests voluntary attention, or attention or 
study of objects not interesting in themselves, 
but which it is important to study and know. 
It is largely developed in children and unde- 
veloped adults in the phase of curiosity or 
desire to observe new things. In adults, of 
developed minds, it manifests as attention to 
things of material interest and important sub- 
jects or objects of study. This Quality is the 
master of its associated Qualities in this 
group, and is involved in all of their activites. 

It manifests outer form in the middle of the 
lower part of the forehead, between the inner 
ends of the eyebrows, and above the top of the 
nose— " just above the root of the nose," in 
fact. Prof. S. Fowler says : " When it is 
large, the eyebrows flex downward at their 
nasal ends, and the lower part of the fore- 
head projects. "When it is deficient, the eye- 
brows are straight at their inner ends, and 
come close together " (See group figure). 

Form. This Quality manifests in a cog- 
nizance, appreciation, and recollection of the 

The Perceptive Qualities 127 

form and shape of objects observed. Those 
in whom it is large most readily perceive, 
recognize and remember details of form and 
shape, faces, etc. It manifests outer form be- 
tween, and slightly above, the eyes, on each 
side of Observation (see group figure). 
When large it tends to push the eyes apart 
and outward. Sizer says: "The width be- 
tween the eyes is the indication of its develop- 
ment. . . . When small the eyes are 
nearer together, which gives a pinched expres- 
sion to that part of the face ; when the organ 
is large, the eyes appear to be separated, 
pushing away from the root of the nose. Dis- 
tinguished artists have the eyes widely sep- 
arated." Audobon said of Bewick, an emi- 
nent English wood-engraver, "His eyes were 
placed farther apart than those of any man 
I have ever seen. ' ' 

Size. This Quality manifests in a cogni- 
zance, appreciation, and recollection of the 
size and magnitude of objects observed. 
Those in whom it is large most readily per- 
ceive, recognize and remember the size, di- 
mensions, proportion, distance, height and 
depth, quantity, bulk of things. It manifests 

128 Human Nature 

outer form on each side of Observation, but a 
little lower down (see group figure), in the 
angle formed by the root of the nose and arch 
of the eyebrows. Prof. 0. S. Fowler says: 
"In proportion as it is large it causes the in- 
ner portion of the eyebrows to project over 
the inner portions of the eyes, quite like 
the eaves of a house, forming a shed over the 
inner portion of each eye." 

Weight. This Quality manifests in a cog- 
nizance, appreciation, and recollection of 
weight, balance and gravity of things. Those 
in whom it is large most readily perceive, 
recognize, and remember the weight of 
things; and also things out of balance or 
plumb. These people seem to have the fac- 
ulty of balancing themselves nicely, and keep- 
ing their feet on a slippery surface, on a tight- 
rope, etc., and often walk with a swinging, 
free motion, indicating a sense of balance 
and security. This Quality manifests under 
the eyebrows, next to Size, about a half inch 
from the upper part of the nose, rising some- 
what above the inner part of the eyeball and 
the bridge of the nose. Prof. 0. S. Fowler 
says: "Draw a perpendicular line from the 

The Perceptive Qualities 129 

centre of each eye up to the eyebrow; 
Weight is internally, and Color externally of 
this line under the eyebrows." 

Color. This Quality manifests in a cog- 
nizance, appreciation, and recollection of the 
color, hue, shade, and tint of things. Those 
in whom it is large most readily perceive, 
recognize and remember the colors, shadings, 
blendings and combination of tints, and to 
compare, match and harmonize colors instinc- 
tively. It manifests outer form under the 
eyebrows, just back of Weight (see rule for 
finding, in last paragraph), and occupies the 
space directly under the centre of the arch 
of the eyebrows, (see group figure). When 
largely developed it gives an upward and for- 
ward arch to the eyebrows. 

Order. This Quality manifests in a cog- 
nizance, appreciation, and recollection of 
order, method and arrangement. Those in 
whom it is large most readily perceive, recog- 
nize, and remember the order and sequence 
in which objects appear or are arranged. 
They are very methodical, precise, and pay at- 
tention to details of arrangement and system. 
They ' ' have a place for everything, ' ' and like 

130 Human Nature 

to "keep everything in its place.' 1 In busi- 
ness they are "strong on system," sometimes 
overdoing it. They are also fond of rules, 
laws, customs, and codes, and adhere strictly 
thereto. They like everything pigeon-holed, 
labelled, or else fenced in and off from every 
other thing. Are also great disciplinarians. 
This Quality manifests outer form next to 
Color, and beneath the junction of the bony 
ridges (on the sides of the head) and the eye- 
brows, (see group figure). Prof. 0. S. Fow- 
ler says : ' ' When very large it forms an arch, 
almost an angle, in the eyebrows at this point, 
accompanied by its projection or hanging 
over. . . . When small, the eyebrows at 
this point retire, and are straight and flat, 
wanting that arched projection given by large 
Order." Combe says: "Its large develop- 
ment produces a square appearance at the 
external angle of the lower part of the fore- 

Calculation. This Quality manifests in a 
cognizance, appreciation, and recollection of 
number, figures, calculations, etc. Those in 
whom it is largely developed most readily per- 
ceive, recognize, and remember anything con- 

The Perceptive Qualities 131 

cerned with the number of things, or calcula- 
tions based thereon. They are natural arith- 
meticians and mathematicians. Calculation 
comes easy to them, and in cases of high de- 
velopment they may be said to "think mathe- 
matically." This Quality manifests outer 
form next to Order, and under the outer ends 
of the eyebrows (see group figure) . 

Prof. 0. S. Fowler, says : "It elongates the 
ends of the eyebrows laterally, and flexes 
them horizontally in proportion as it is de- 
veloped, yet when deficient the eyebrow is left 
short externally, does not project beyond the 
eye, atnd terminates running downwards/' 
Gall says : "Its convolution is a continuation 
of the lowest convolution of Tune , and is 
placed on the most external part of the orbital 
plate, in a furrow running from before back- 
wards. When it is very large it depresses 
the external part of the plate, so that the su- 
per orbital arch is irregular, except in its in- 
ternal part; its external line representing a 
straight line, which descends obliquely. 
Hence the external part of the eyelid is de- 
pressed, and conceals the corresponding part 
of the eye. ' ' 

132 Human Nature 

Tune. This Quality manifests in a cog- 
nizance, appreciation, and recollection of 
tune, music, harmony, melody, etc. Those in 
whom it is large most readily perceive, rec- 
ognize, and remember all connected with the 
subject of Music. It is the musical sense, 
taste and faculty. Its characteristics are too 
well-known to require elaboration. It mani- 
fests outer form in the lateral and lower part 
of the forehead, above Order and Calcula- 
tion, in front of Constructiveness, and back of 
Time (see group figure). Prof. 0. S. Fowler 
says: "When large it fills out the lower, 
frontal portions of the temples. . . . 
Still, being located in a kind of corner 
. . . and the temporal muscle passing over 
it, its position varies somewhat, which ren- 
ders observation more difficult, except in the 
heads of children, in whom it is generally 
larger than in adults. ' ' 

Time. This Quality manifests in a cog- 
nizance, appreciation, and recollection of time, 
duration, rhythm, etc. Those in whom it is 
large most readily perceive, recognize, and 
remember all connected with the flight of 
time, dates, duration, periodicity, chronology, 

The Perceptive Qualities 133 

etc. Spurzheim says of it that it, ''perceives 
the duration, simultaneousness, and succes- 
sion of phenomena. ' ' It may be called ' ' the 
time sense ' ' which is so apparent in some per- 
sons, and so noticeable by reason of its ab- 
sence in others. It manifests outer form 
above Color and Weight, in front of Tune, 
and back of Locality (see group figure). 

Locality. This Quality manifests in a cog- 
nizance, appreciation, and recollection of 
places, positions , locations, directions, etc. 
Those in whom it is large most readily per- 
ceive, recognize, and remember places, direc- 
tions, positions, land-marks, points-of-the 
compass, roads, paths, streets, and other 
things having to do with space. Such persons 
are never "lost" nor confused as to direction 
or locality; they have an almost instinctive 
"sense of direction." It is the geographical 
or traveller's sense. It is found large in the 
majority of travellers, sailors, civil engineers, 
etc. Persons in whom it is large can find 
themselves about a strange city without 
trouble, and will remember old scenes, places, 
locations for years. Those in whom it is weak 

134 Human Nature 

frequently ''get lost," or mixed up regarding 
place, position and direction. 

It manifests outer form over Size and 
Weight, or about three-quarters of an inch 
above the inner half of the eyebrows, and 
runs upwards and outwards (see group 
figure). It is said to have been immensely 
developed and apparent in Capt. Cook, the 
eminent explorer, and the portraits of Co- 
lumbus and other great explorers and travel- 
lers show a distinct enlargement of this lo- 
cality. Gall, who discovered the location of 
this Quality, took casts of the heads of noted 
explorers and travellers, and others manifest- 
ing the "sense of place and direction," and 
upon comparing them, "found in them all, in 
the region directly over the eyes, two large 
prominences, which began just inside the root 
of the nose, and ascended obliquely upwards 
and outwards as far as the middle of the fore- 
head." Dr. Caldwell states that, "Daniel 
Boone who was perpetually going from one 
place to another, was the most celebrated 
hunter and woodsman of his age, and pos- 
sessed this organ in a degree of development 

The Perceptive Qualities 135 

so bold and prominent that it deformed his 

Eventuality. This Quality manifests in 
a cognizance appreciation and recollection 
of facts, events, happenings, occurrences, 
news, etc. Those in whom it is large most 
readily perceive, recognize and remember 
striking events, facts, doings, occurrences— in 
short, news. Such persons have the ' ' nose for 
news" which is so important to the news- 
paper man, scientific investigator, researcher 
in any line, and general investigator. It is 
the "historical faculty," and the "journal- 
istic sense," as well as an important part of 
the "scientific instinct." These people make 
good witnesses, story tellers, and entertainers. 
They know "what is going on," and are the 
people to go to when one wishes to "hear the 
news," or to learn the past history of any- 
thing or anybody. 

This Quality manifests outer form in the 
centre of the forehead, immediately above Ob- 
servation, and in front of Locality (see 
group figure). When large it tends to "fill 
out" the middle of the forehead. Prof. 0. S. 
Fowler says : "It sometimes seems deficient, 

136 Human Nature 

because the surrounding organs are large, 
whereas close inspection shows it to be large. 
Steady the head with the left hand, and place 
the second finger of the right in the very 
centre of the forehead, firmly on the head, 
and then work the skin horizontally. If your 
finger caresses an up-and-down ridge about 
the size of a pipe-stem, this faculty is vigor- 
ous, and has been much used and strengthened 
by culture of late years. Where it is not no- 
ticeably full, but has been taxed by business 
or literary pursuits, or had a great many little 
things to do for years, it appears deficient to 
the eye, but the rule just given for this per- 
pendicular pipe-stem ridge signifies great ac- 
tivity and vigor in it." (See group figure.) 

Words. This Quality manifests in a cogni- 
zance, appreciation and recollection of words, 
terms, phrases, etc., and their meanings. 
Those in whom it is large most readily per- 
ceive, recognize and remember the words, ex- 
pressions, gestures and other modes of com- 
munication between the minds of men, and 
are proficient not only in perceiving and un- 
derstanding them, but also in employing and 
using them. It is the taste, power, and ability 

The Perceptive Qualities 137 

to receive verbal Impressions and to manifest 
verbal Expression. It produces the orator, 
and the adept in the use of words in writing. 
To those persons in whom it is largely devel- 
oped, words take on life and reality, and be- 
come living thought. In excess, it produces 
verbosity, talkativeness, and "windiness" of 
expression. When deficient, it renders one 
unable to properly express himself. It mani- 
fests outer form above and partly behind the 
superorbital plates, which form the roof of 
the sockets of the eyes, and when large tends 
to press the eyes forward and downward. Its 
location was discovered by Gall, who observed 
that those fluent in the use of words almost 
always had full and prominent eyes, and 
prominent under eye-lids. The fullness of the 
eyes and lower eyelids, therefore, is its dis- 
tinguishing mark. 

Professor 0. S. Fowler says: "See how 
the eyes stand out beyond the cheekbone— 
the best standard points from which to esti- 
mate its size, because, though it may be large, 
yet the Perceptives may be still larger, in 
which case the latter will project forward still 
farther even beyond large Expression. 

138 Human Nature 

(Words). Hence the fullness of the eyes 
should not be compared with the eyebrows as 
much as ivith the bone below them, which not 
being subject to kindred mutations, forms a 
correct measuring point of observation. " 
The pressure outward of the under eyelids, 
is a good sign of the development of this 
Quality. It may be objected to that Quality 
of Words is not, strictly speaking, a Percep- 
tive, but when it is realized that before words 
may be fluently used, they must be 'perceived, 
recognized, and remembered, the reason for 
our inclusion of this Quality in the Perceptive 
class may be understood. 



The ninth group is known as the Reflective 
Qualities, which is composed of the two fol- 
lowing particular Qualities: Analysis and 
Logic, respectively. This group is accorded 
the highest place among the mental Qualities, 
for Reason is ranked higher than Emotion, 
Feeling or Sentiment. Its purpose is to phil- 
osophize, penetrate, investigate, originate, 
pursue the processes of inductive and deduc- 
tive reasoning, analyze, synthesize, take apart, 
put together, combine, harmonize, search for, 
discover, and to manifest all the processes of 
Rational Thought, using the report of the 
Perceptives as "raw material." This group 
manifests outer form in the upper part of the 
forehead, immediately above the Reflective 
Qualities. (See Fig. 10.) When large it gives 
to the upper part of the forehead that appear- 
ance of intellectuality, which is so commonly 
recognized, and which has given rise to the 
semi-slang phrase " high-brow' ' as applied to 
persons manifesting intellect. 


Fig. 10 
the reflective qualities 


The Reflective Qualities 141 

Analysis. This Quality manifests in a 
strong desire to analyze, compare, classify, in- 
fer, discriminate, illustrate, etc. It gathers 
together the "raw material" of perception, 
and proceeds to analyze and compare its par- 
ticular parts, and then to group the parts to- 
gether in a new classification and synthesis. 
Those in whom it is largely developed mani- 
fest the power of comparison to a high degree, 
discovering points of resemblance and differ- 
ence almost intuitively. They will plunge to 
the heart of a subject in a short time, and will 
be able to extract the essence of an object or 
subject with comparatively little effort. 

Spurzheim says of it: "The great law of 
this faculty seems to be to form abstract ideas, 
generalizations, and harmony among the 
operations of the other faculties. ... It 
pre-supposes, however, the activity of the 
other faculties, and cannot act upon them if 
they are inactive. " 

Professor Nelson Sizer says that it, "fre- 
quently discovers unexpected resemblances 
among other things, and people who have it 
in a very active condition are constantly sur- 
prising those in whom it is dull by their novel 

142 Human Nature 

illustrations. It is the source of the ability 
some writers possess of using frequently 
metaphors and analogies. . . . While it 
contributes to reason, it is not strictly so, per 
se ... It endeavors to prove that one 
thing is of such and such a nature, because it 
resembles another that is so and so; and 
because the majority of people have it fairly 
developed, they are prone to convert an illus- 
tration into an argument. It exercises a most 
important influence upon the mind in the way 
of analytical capability; and one who has it 
largely developed is quick in discovering and 
understanding differences, enigmatical asser- 
tions and improper or inaccurate allusions; 
hence it is essential to critical acumen." 

Gall says, regarding its discovery : " I often 
conversed with a philosopher endowed with 
great vivacity, who, when unable to prove his 
point by logic, had recourse to a comparison, 
by which he often threw his opponents off the 
track, which he could not do by arguments. ' ' 
It tends to reason by analogy, and to make 
rapid and clever generalizations. The major- 
ity of scientists have it largely developed, as 
also do discoverers in all lines of investigation 

The Reflective Qualities 143 

and research, and as Gall says: "Its posses- 
sors seize and judge well of the relations of 
things, etc., and are well fitted for business. ' ' 
It is attracted by investigation and thought 
regarding concrete things, rather than by ab- 
stract subjects. It is scientific, rather than 

As Prof. 0. S. Fowler says, it: "illustrates 
with great cleverness and facility from the 
known to the unknown, and discovers the 
deeper analogies which pervade nature, and 
has an extraordinary power of discovering 
new truths. It reasons clearly and correctly 
from conclusions and scientific facts up to the 
laws which govern them ; discerns the known 
from the unknown; detects error by its incon- 
gruity with facts; has an excellent talent for 
comparing, explaining, expounding, criticis- 
ing, exposing, etc. ; employs similes and meta- 
phors well ; puts this and that together, and 
draws correct inferences from them." 

This Quality manifests in outer form in 
the middle of the upper part of the forehead, 
along the middle-line, just below the hair, di- 
rectly above Eventuality, and between the 
two lobes of Logic (see group figure). Prof. 

144 Human Nature 

0. S. Fowler says of it: "It commences at 
the centre of the forehead and runs upward 
nearly to the hair. When it projects beyond 
surrounding organs it resembles a cone, its 
apex forming a ridge which widens as it rises. 
Its ample development elevates the middle of 
the upper portion of the forehead, and gives 
it an ascending form." 

Logic. This Quality manifests in a strong 
desire to inquire into the ' ' Why ? " of things— 
into Causes— into the "Wherefore?"; and to 
reason therefrom to effects and application 
of laws. Those in whom it is large manifest 
the power of logical reasoning to a high de- 
gree, and abhor fallacies. This is the philo- 
sophical faculty of mind. It searches back of 
facts and phenomena for causes, motives and 
laws, and then reasons deductively from these. 
Combe says: "This faculty prompts us on 
all occasions to ask, "Why is this so, and what 
is its object?" It demands reasons and 
proofs in the reasoning of its owner, as well 
as from others." 

Prof. Nelson Sizer says: "It gives ability 
to look deeply into subjects, and to appreciate 
the logical sequences of arguments, hence it 

The Reflective Qualities 145 

is large in persons who indicate genius in 
metaphysics, political economy, and all sci- 
ences of a profound character. . . . When 
prominent, and the perceptive faculties are 
moderate, and Comparison (Analysis) is not 
equally influential, it tends to speculative 
thinking. Men so constituted are given to 
spinning improbable theories; their notions 
are too abstract for ordinary minds, and they 
are looked upon as dull and heavy weights in 
society. On the other hand when it (Logic) 
is deficient, the individual is superficial and 
incapable of taking comprehensive views of 
subjects; or forming judgments that will ap- 
ply to the affairs of life successfully. 

Professor 0. S. Fowler says that this Qual- 
ity gives "the desire to know the why and 
wherefore of things, and to investigate their 
laws; ability to reason from causes down to 
effects, and from effects up to causes; the 
therefore and wherefore; ability to adapt 
ways and means to ends, to plan, contrive, in- 
vent, create resources, apply power advan- 
tageously, make heads save hands, kill two 
birds with one stone, predict the results of 
given measures, etc." 

146 Human Nature 

This Quality manifests outer form in the 
sides of the upper part of the forehead, one 
either side of Analysis and over Locality (see 
group figure). When large it gives to the 
forehead a "high, bold, square" form. With 
large Pereeptives this Quality does not pre- 
sent so prominent an appearance and so 
marked a comparison, but with the Pereep- 
tives small it gives to the brow an ' ' overhang- 
ing" appearance. With Analysis equally, or 
nearly as strong, the fullness of course ex- 
tends well across the forehead; but with 
Analysis much smaller, Logic presents a bulg- 
ing on each side of the forehead; while with 
Analysis large and Logic small, the latter 
gives the appearance of two depressions on 
each side of the forehead. 

Spurzheim well says of the combination 
of Analysis and Logic (which he terms ' ' Com- 
parison" and "Causality," respectively): 
"Causality and Comparison combined con- 
stitute Eeason. Without Causality (Logic) 
there can be no argumentative reasoning; 
without Comparison (Analysis), no compre- 
hensive views, and no nice distinctions. Ob- 
servation teaches objects, and Eventuality 

The Reflective Qualities 147 

facts, while Comparison (Analysis) points 
out their identity, analogy, difference or har- 
mony, whereas Causality (Logic) seeks their 
causes, and all together discern general prin- 
ciples and laws ; draw conclusions, inductions 
and creations, and constitute a truly philo- 
sophical understanding." 



The tenth group is known as the Religio- 
Moral Qualities, and is composed of the fol- 
lowing particular Qualities : Reverence, Mys- 
ticism, Optimism, and Conscientiousness, re- 
spectively. This group manifests outer form 
at the front-top of the head, and on either side 
thereof (see Fig. 11). 

Reverence. This Quality manifests in a 
strong reverence, respect and awe for and of 
higher beings, persons in authority, sacred 
things, religious ideas, constituted authority, 
leaders, teachers, and heroes. It may be sym- 
bolically expressed by the word, "Worship." 
Like that of Mysticism, this Quality contains 
within its field the highest and the lowest. It 
manifests the reverence and veneration for 
the highest conceptions of Deity and Being; 
and also the fear and base servile worship of 
idols, demoniac deities, devil-gods, etc. Like- 
wise, it manifests in respect and submission 
for the lawfully constituted authorities; and 
also for false leaders and prophets, charla- 


Fig. 11 
the bel1gio-mobal qualities 


150 Human Nature 

tans and importers. In the same way it causes 
a hero-worship for those who have performed 
meritorious tasks and have wrought good for 
the race; but also for the unworthy persons 
whose sensational deeds have brought them 
into the "limelight" of notoriety. It mani- 
fests in all forms of the highest religion ; and 
in the lowest forms of devil-worship and low 
superstitious awe and fear, in the richest re- 
ligious experiences, and in the wildest fanat- 
icism and hallucinations. The direction of 
the manifestation is decided by the relative 
development of the other propensities, par- 
ticularly those of the reasoning faculties. 

This Quality manifests outer form on the 
middle-top of the head, along the middle-line 
directly in front of Firmness, back of Sym- 
pathy, and just above Mysticism and Opti- 
mism (see group figure). When largely de- 
veloped, it causes the middle of the top of 
the head to "bulge," particularly if Mysti- 
cism be also largely developed, the combina- 
tion usually being thus. 

Mysticism. This Quality manifests in a 
strong attraction for the supernatural, the 
marvellous, the unknown, the mysterious. 

The Religio -Moral Qualities 151 

When perverted it leads to superstition, gross 
credulity, belief in witchcraft ; faith in signs, 
omens, and warnings, etc. When balanced by 
certain other Qualities it leads one to the 
higher nights of religious experience, faith, 
and consciousness of the "light within;" but 
when not so balanced it leads one to credulity, 
superstition and religious, occult, and mysti- 
cal imposture. 

"Psychic" phenomena are familiar to those 
in whom it is largely developed in connection 
with certain other mental qualities ; clairvoy- 
ance, second-sight, spirit-vision and other 
peculiar experiences being common to these 
people. The prophets, seers, and wonder- 
workers belong to this class of "psychics." 
Poets possess this Quality in many cases. 
The manifestations of this Quality include 
some of the very highest and the very lowest 
of ' ' spiritual ' ' experiences and feelings. This 
paradox is explained when we consider the 
influence of the other Qualities, high and low, 
operating in connection with that of Mysti- 
cism. In the garden of Mysticism grow the 
choicest flowers and the rankest and most 
noxious weeds. 

152 Human Nature 

This Quality is located immediately in 
front of Optimism, and below on either side 
of Reverence, on the front-upper part of the 
head (see group figure). When developed it 
renders the front top-head broad and promi- 

Optimism. This Quality manifests in a 
strong tendency to look on the bright side 
of things, to expect the best, to anticipate the 
best. Spurzheim says of it : " Hope is neces- 
sary to the happiness of man in almost all 
situations and often gives more satisfaction 
than even success. Those who are everlast- 
ingly scheming or building castles in the air 
have it large. It believes possible whatever 
the other faculties desire. It is not confined 
to this life, but inspires hopes of a future 
state, and belief in the immortality of the soul. 
When too strong it expects the unreasonable 
and impossible ; but when too weak, with Cau- 
tion large, it produces low spirits, melancholy 
and despair." 

This Quality when full produces optimists ; 
when weak, pessimists; when medium, the 
average person who swings between the two 
extremes partaking of the nature of each. 

The Religio-Moral Qualities 153 

Those in whom it is developed to excess are 
apt to see success in everything, and with a 
lively imagination translate dreams into 
realities; of these persons it has been said: 
' ' show them an egg, and the next minute the 
air is full of feathers." When this Quality 
is weak the person is disposed to look for the 
worm in the apple, decay at the heart of the 
rose, and for the skeleton beneath the form 
of beauty. It has been said that "the opti- 
mist sees nothing but the body of the dough- 
nut; the pessimist, nothing but the hole." 

This Propensity manifests outer form at 
the middle sides of the upper head, in front 
of Conscientiousness, back of Spirituality 
(see group figure). 

Conscientiousness. This Quality mani- 
fests in a strong tendency to act according to 
truth, principle, duty, the accepted code of 
ethics, conception of right, accepted religious 
teachings— in short to regulate conduct ac- 
cording to the particular standard of "right 
and wrong" accepted by the person. Those 
in whom it is large feel keenly their personal 
responsibility, duty, and moral obligation. 
With Reverence large, they model their stand- 

154 Human Nature 

ard of duty upon religious standards, while 
with Reverence small, and Sociability large, 
they model their standard upon social ethics, 
the Brotherhood of Man, and the "social con- 
science." In fact the Quality itself gives rise 
to what is generally called the "social con- 
science. ' ' 

Combe says of this Propensity: "After 
more than thirty years experience of the 
world in actual life, and in various countries, 
I cannot remember an instance in which I 
have been permanently treated unjustly by 
one in whom this organ and intellect were 
large. Momentary injustice, through irrita- 
tion or misrepresentation , may have been 
done ; but after correct information and time 
to become cool, I have found such persons ever 
disposed to act on the dictates of Conscience ; 
as well satisfied with justice. ... It 
leads to punctuality in keeping appointments 
so as not to waste their time; to the ready 
payment of debts; will not send collectors 
away unsatisfied except from inability to pay ; 
are reserved in making promises, but punctual 
in keeping them; and when favorably com- 
bined, are consistent in conduct. ... Its 

The Religio-Moral Qualities 155 

predominance makes a strict disciplinarian 
and a rigid but just master ; invests all actions 
with a sense of duty ; thereby sometimes ren- 
dering estimable persons disagreeable." 

In normal manifestation this Quality ren- 
ders its possessor a most worthy and estim- 
able individual; but when abnormally devel- 
oped and not balanced by judgment and the 
reasoning faculties, it produces persecutors 
and religious and ethical tyrants, adhering to 
the letter of the law rather than to its spirit. 
Conscience is generally esteemed, but careful 
observers deplore the "ingrown conscience" 
and "blue-law spirit" of those of large Con- 
scientiousness, large Destructiveness, and 
small Sympathy. Many so-called "reform- 
ers" belong to this last class. This Quality 
manifests outer form on the side of the top 
part of the head, just below and on either side 
of Firmness. It lies between Firmness and 
Cautiousness, with Optimism just in front of 
it and Approbativeness just back of it (see 
group figure). 



Next to the shape of the head, the facial 
expression furnishes us with the most marked 
indication of the outer form accompanying 
the inner mental state. In fact, many authori- 
ties hold that the facial expression affords 
the most easily read and most comprehen- 
sive index of character, and that, therefore, 
Physiognomy possesses many points of su- 
periority over Phrenology. The truth seems 
to be that Physiognomy and Phrenology are 
twin-sciences, and that the true student of Hu- 
man Nature should acquaint himself thor- 
oughly with both. 

Physiognomy is ' ' the science and art of dis- 
covering or reading the temper and other 
characteristic qualities of the mind by the 
features of the face. ' ' The philosophy under- 
lying the science of Physiognomy has been 
stated at length in the first several chapters 
of this book, the essence of which is that men- 
tal states manifest in outward form. The 
majority of persons apply the principles of 


Faces 157 

Physiognomy more or less unconsciously in 
judging the characters of those with whom 
they come in contact. Nearly every one scans 
closely the features of those whom they meet 
for the first time, and form a general impres- 
sion therefrom. Children and domestic ani- 
mals possess an instinctive knowledge of 
facial expression and can often tell very accu- 
rately the general disposition toward them 
possessed by various persons. Certain per- 
sons are generally considered to "look stu- 
pid, ' r while others have "a bright, intelligent 
expression"; some look "tricky," while 
others "look honest" and trustworthy. 

Professor Nelson Sizer says : "Though all 
human beings have the general human form 
and features— though all have eyes, nose, 
mouth, chin, etc., yet each one has a different 
face and look from every other. And, more, 
yet, the same person has a very different fa- 
cial look at different times, according as he 
is angry or friendly, etc. And always the 
same look when in the same mood. Of course, 
then, something causes this expression— es- 
pecially, since all who are angry, friendly, etc., 
have one general or similar expression; that 

158 Human Nature 

is, one look expresses anger, another affec- 
tion, another devotion, another kindness, etc. 
And since nature always works by means, she 
must needs have her physiognomical tools. 
Nor are they under the control of the will, 
for they act spontaneously. "We cannot help, 
whether we will or no, laughing when merry, 
even though in church, pouting when pro- 
voked, and expressing all our mental opera- 
tions, down even to the very innermost re- 
cesses of our souls, in and by our countenan- 
ces. And with more minuteness and com- 
pleteness than by words, especially when the 
expressions are intense or peculiar." 

Professor Drayton says. " Every thing, 
from head to feet, of form, size, and action, 
indicates in some degree, the character of the 
individual, or state of mind, and feeling in 
exercise for the time being. The arching or 
depressing of the eyebrows, the full opening 
or partial closing of the eye, the pursing or 
pouting of the lips, the firm set jaw, the ele- 
vated head, the lofty shoulders, the stiff at- 
titude, the dignified and stately step, or the 
reverse of this, will impress each observer in 
respect to the changing moods which may 

Faces 159 

exist in a given individual. . . . Each of 
the mental organs has its natural language, 
as shown in pantomine, which is exhibited by 
the gestures and motions of the head, hands 
and body. Children and animals read the 
feelings of their parents or masters by their 
motions and attitudes, which are often more 
influential than words. The brain is the cen- 
tral source of motive and mental power; 
every action has its root or seat of impulse 
in the brain and its connections, and as the 
mind forms purposes, the will is sent out 
tc the extremities, and the external motions 
express the inward thought and feeling. 
Habitual states of mind tend to produce hab- 
itual forms and expressions of face and body; 
a person who suffers pain for years, will have 
in the face an expression of the internal state ; 
one who has been nurtured in gladness, 
though the face may not be beautiful, will 
wear the sunshine of joy; one who has had 
care and responsibility, will come to show it 
in the face, in the walk, and in the voice, as 
one who has been subjugated and kept subor- 
dinate will have the word humiliation written 


Human Nature 

in his features not only, but in all his move- 
ments and attitudes." 


The authorities in Physiognomy divide the 
faces of persons into three general classes, 
viz: (1) The Bound Face; (2) The Oblong 
Face; and (3) The Pear-shaped Face. 

Fig. 12 
round face 

In Fig. 12, we see the Round Face. This 
face is indicative of the Vital Temperament. 
It is usually associated with broad shoulders, 
short neck, full chest, and plumpness, with 
enlarged abdomen in middle life. These peo- 



pie love ease and physical comforts, good eat- 
ing and drinking, and not too much hard men- 
tal or physical work. They are solicitous of 
the comfort of their bodies, and generally 
"look out for No. 1" in this respect. They 
are generally good-natured and sociable, and 
often jolly. 

Fig. 13 
oblong face 

In Fig. 13, we see the Oblong Face. This 
face is indicative of the Motive Temperament. 
It is usually associated with a compact firm 


Human Nature 

body, which while well filled out can scarcely 
be called plump, certainly not fleshy. These 
people are generally strong and active, per- 
severing and sparing neither themselves or 

Fia. 14 


others in the direction of work. They are apt 
to have a very fair share of common sense; 
are practical; and are generally reliable. 

In Fig. 14, we see the Pear-shaped Face. 
This face is indicative of the Mental Tern- 

Faces 163 

perament. It is usually associated with a 
delicately formed body, and finely propor- 
tioned physical shape; the shoulders often 
being narrow, and the neck long. These peo- 
ple manifest the characteristics of mental 
and nervous force, rather than of vital or mo- 
tive energy. They often have bright, expres- 
sive eyes, and show other signs of the artistic 
or literary character. They are inclined to 
be sensitive and impressionable, and to suffer 
and enjoy keenly. 

In addition to the aforementioned general 
types, there are several others which are 
modifications thereof, and which we shall now 

In Fig. 15, we see the Square Face. This 
face indicates a combination of the Motive 
and Vital Temperaments, with the Religio- 
Moral Qualities deficient and the Selfish- 
Qualities predominant. These people usually 
have square, stocky bodies, strong and wiry, 
and are tenacious of life. They are Material- 
istic to a degree, and cannot understand 
others who differ temperamentally from 
them. Usually, they have Combativeness and 
Destructiveness large; strong Perceptive 


Human Nature 

Qualities; and but moderate Conscientious- 
ness. They look out for themselves, pushing 
others aside, and not being disturbed by "the 
higher feelings." They are generally stub- 

Fig. 15 
square face 

born ; and their weak point is apt to be Ama- 

In Fig. 16, we see the Egg-shaped Face. 
This face indicates the Mental Temperament 
with the Psychic Qualities largely in the as- 
cendent. The Selfish Qualities are weak, 
while the Qualities of Mysticism, Keverence 

Faces 165 

and Ideality are large. These people are gen- 
erally known as "spiritual," and are often 
very ' 'psychic. ' ' They are generally imprac- 

Fig. 16 
egg-shaped face 

tical and dwell in an ideal world apart from 
the things of earth. 

In Fig. 17, we see the Inverted-Egg-shaped 
Face. This face indicates the extreme form 
of the Vital Temperament, associated with 
an absence of the active qualities which 
should accompany it. The Mental and Motive 

166 Human Nature 

Qualities are quite deficient, while the purely 
Animal Qualities are strong. The result is 
a pig-like nature, content with wallowing in 
the mud of the animal propensities and hav- 

Fig. 17 
inverted egg-shaped face 

ing a full swill-barrel. These people are es- 
sentially lazy, gross, worthless, and animal- 
like. Note the large lower-face (without the 
strong jaw), and the small upper head. Note 
the broad nose, and general lazy expression. 
In Figs. 18 and 19, respectively, we see 



the contrast between Broad and Narrow 
Faces. The rule is that Broad Faces indicate 
fight, destructiveness, and acquisitiveness— 
the Selfish Faculties, in fact; while Narrow 

Fig. 18 
broad face 

Faces indicate a lack of these qualities. The 
broad-headed animals are the fighters, while 
the narrow-heads are the timid and peaceful, 
as a rule. The same principle applies in the 
case of men. Look over the charts of the 
Qualities, and see why this is. 
The above mentioned several types or 


Human Nature 

classes of faces have, of course, innumerable 
variations and combinations, but a careful 
study of these several types will give one the 
general key to all faces. It is well to obtain a 

Fig. 19 
nabbow face 

side view, as well as a full-face view, of the 
face one wishes to study. 

In studying faces, not only the general 
shape of the face must be observed, but also 
the various features thereof, as for instance : 
the chin ; the mouth ; the nose ; the eyes ; the 
ears ; etc. These features form the subject of 
the following chapters. 



Physiognomists regard the chin as an im- 
portant feature to be considered in the study 
of faces as the outer form of character. The 
following are the principal points of the 
"reading" of chins. 

In Fig. 20 we see the first point to be ob- 
served in the study of chins. The rule is to 
draw an imaginary perpendicular line from 
the point at the root of the nose, between the 
two eyebrows. In the normal and average 
type, the line touches the upper lip and chin. 
But we find the normal condition in but com- 
paratively few cases, the majority manifest- 
ing a variation backward or forward. When 
the chin is found to recede from the line, it is 
interpreted as an indication of weakness, lack 
of stability and firmness, and a general vacil- 
lating and unstable character. When the chin 
projects beyond the line, it is interpreted as 
indicating firmness, stubborness, and a gener- 
ally selfish nature, which is considered 
"strong" by contrast with the "weak" reced- 



Human Nature 

ing chin. When the projecting chin is 
pointed, it indicates that the strength is mani- 
fested as grasping, miserliness, etc. ; while if 
it is square, it indicates Combativeness and 

Fig. 20 
chin study 

Destructiveness as well as Acquisitiveness; 
and if it is very broad and square, it indicates 
the domineering, "bossy," tyrannical, self- 
willed character. 

Chins and Mouths 171 

The above points regarding the chin must 
always be taken into consideration. The fol- 
lowing points are based on the shape of the 
ebm when in normal position, that is when 
the perpendicular line descends in a straight 
line from) the root of the nose to the chin : 

The narroio-round chin indicates idealistic 
feeling not manifesting in decided action. 
These people have high desires, longings, and 
aspiration, but lack the will to act upon the 

The narrow -square chin indicates the ideal- 
istic nature, accompanied by the will to act 
upon the same. 

The broad-round chin indicates substantial 
feeling, without the will to manifest it in de- 
cided action. These people desire ordinary, 
plain, practical things, but lack the initiative, 
will and nerve to overcome obstacles to ac- 
quire them. 

The broad-square chin indicates that the 
feelings are plain, practical and substantial, 
with the tvill to bach them up. 

From the above, it will be seen that round- 
ness indicates feeling; and that squareness 
denotes will; that narrowness denotes ideal- 

172 Human Nature 

ity; while broadness denotes practical, sub- 
stantial, plain desires and tastes. 

The dimpled or indented chin indicates the 
warm artistic temperament with its accom- 
panying desire for love of the opposite sex, 
desire for affection, and alas! too often a 
fickleness and lack of loyalty and fidelity in 
love affairs. 


A broad, firm jaw indicates strong Com- 
bativeness, Destructiveness and Firmness. 

A narrow, loose jaw indicates the reverse 
of the qualities above noted. 

A loose, drooping jaw and open mouth in- 
dicates timidity, weakness, shyness, or des- 

The fighters in all walks of life manifest the 
strong, firm jaw. It is the survival of the 
primitive "bite" in the animal or cave-man. 


The Orientals have a proverb which runs 
as follows : "By a man's eyes, know what he 
might have been, or may be; by his mouth, 
knew what he has been, and is." The study 
of the mouth is one of the greatest interest', 

Chins and Mouths 173 

and one which will richly repay one for his 
time and thought. It will be noticed that 
there is a great difference between the mouth 
and lips of an individual in childhood, in 
youth, and in middle-age, which fact shows 
the truth of the Oriental proverb just quoted. 
The mouth indeed shows what a man has been 
and is. 

Small mouths generally denote undevel- 
oped, childish, or babyish character, neither 
good nor bad. 

Large mouths denote matured character, 
good or bad. When firm, they denote force 
and energy. "When half-open, they denote 
dullness and heaviness. When showing full 
protruding lips, they denote sensuality and 
selfish passions and tastes. When very large 
and flexible, they denote the " windy" person 
who is fond of talking and hearing the sound 
of his own voice— when one says that another 
is "big-mouthed" he states a truth which 
physiognomy bears out. 

An upward curve of the corners of the 
mouth, denotes a cheerful, optimistic disposi- 
tion and mental attitude. Likewise, a down- 
ward curve denotes a despondent, pessimistic 

174 Human Nature 

disposition and mental attitude. A graceful 
bow-like curve, shows a well-balanced and 
"all around" disposition. 

Tightly closed lips indicate a firmness, and 
often a " closeness" of disposition. Loosely 
closed lips indicate a lack of firmness, and 
often a spendthrift tendency. Lips that touch 
lightly and protrude slightly in a "kiss-like" 
shape, indicate vanity, love of praise and 
flattery, and often a desire to be petted. 

Puffed-out lips indicate sloth, dullness, 
lack of energy and ambition, general heavi- 
ness. Coarse lips indicate lack of refinement, 
and often grossness. Particularly full lips 
indicate Amativeness and sometimes Sensu- 

Slanting mouths indicate trickiness, "foxi- 
ness" and general unreliability. Crooked 
mouths, or mouths greatly out of symmetry, 
are held by many authorities to indicate lack 
of Conscientiousness, and often criminal tend- 

Full, red, middle-lips indicate love of the 
opposite sex. Thin, pale middle-lips denote 
the opposite traits. 

A long upper-lip indicates Self-Esteem. A 

Chins and Mouths 175 

short tipper-lip denotes deficient Self-Esteem, 
but often also a strong Approbativeness. 
(John D. Rockefeller has an almost abnor- 
mally long upper lip.) 

The affectionate faculties are believed to 
manifest in outer form in the center of the 
lips, because of certain nerve centers at that 
place. A fullness and enlargement there de- 
notes strong affection, while deficiency in the 
affectionate qualities manifest in the opposite 

Will and self-control is shown by the rela- 
tive firmness and ' ' set ' ' of the lips and mouth. 

Besides the above mentioned characteris- 
tics, the student will soon perceive that there 
are certain " expressions" of the lips and 
mouth which, although impossible of expres- 
sion in words, nevertheless may be almost 
instinctively recognized by the careful ob- 
server. Lips, like eyes, tell their story plainly 
to the careful and practiced observer. It is 
a safe rule to avoid those whose mouths 
arouse an instinctive distrust in your mind. 
Watch closely the mouths of people speaking 
to you, and you will receive many a plain sig- 
nal of danger, and many an assurance of 

176 Human Nature 

safety. The eyes, while full of information, 
often deceive those not fully versed in their 
secret code — but the mouth tells its tale in 
plain, simple, understandable terms, signs and 



It has been said that ' ' the eyes are the win- 
dows of the soul," and indeed they do express 
a something that is not possible to any other 
part of the face or body. When unrestrained 
the eye correctly portrays the innermost feel- 
ings and emotions affecting and influencing 
us, and in many cases we are able to get a 
clear and unobstructed view of the soul be- 
hind the eyes by gazing into them. But, alas ! 
it is possible to mask the expression of the 
eyes, and to counterfeit emotions and feelings 
which do not exist within the mind. Men and 
women trained in the arts of dissimulation 
and concealment, may, and do, conceal their 
thoughts and feelings which ordinarily would 
be reflected in their eyes ; and many, especially 
women, are able to counterfeit feelings which 
have no real existence in their minds or souls. 
We have seen women bestowing upon the un- 
suspecting "mere man," the most artless, in- 
genuous "baby stare," while at the same time 
their minds were filled with craft and cun- 


178 Human Nature 

ning. We have seen others whose eyes por- 
trayed the most absolute innocence and truth, 
while their hearts were filled with selfish, base 
feelings, and their minds with cunning 
schemes. The trained diplomat and skilled 
gambler successfully mask their thoughts, and 
their eyes reflect nothing of their secrets ; and, 
upon occasion, they are able to throw into 
their eyes any desired expression. The best 
authorities on Physiognomy hold that the 
mouth is a much more reliable index of 
thought and character than the eye— for the 
eye may lie, while the mouth betrays itself 
even when attempting the counterfeit. 

But, nevertheless, the eyes do betray char- 
acter, not by their expression but by their 
shape and form. Habitual mental states re- 
flect in the outer form of the eyes, in spite of 
the care of their owners not to let them tell 
the secret of the thought and feeling of the 
moment. The story is told not by the expres- 
sion of the eye, but by the muscles surround- 
ing the eyes, the eye-lids, etc. In fact, the 
eye-lids supply the greater part of that which 
we call the "-expression of the eye," their con- 
tractions and relaxations producing the effect. 

Eyes, Ears and Noses 179 

Secretiveness, cunning, and closeness are 
denoted by closely drawn eye-lids, a furtive 
look often being imparted thereby . This posi- 
tion of the eye-lids has been likened to an 
instinctive inclination to draw the eye-lids 
together to hide the expression of the eye, but 
it probably arises from the original trait of 
the animal to protect his eyes from attack 
when engaging in a fight, or raid. As an in- 
stance of this, it will be found that a feeling 
of cruelty, or desire to hurt another, will mani- 
fest in a compression of the eye-lids, and a 
tightening of the upper eyelid which assumes 
a straight form. Frankness, truthfulness 
and honesty are, in the same way, indicated by 
open, free looking eyes. This expression may 
be counterfeited upon occasions, but the coun- 
terfeit may be detected by observing the eyes 
when the owner is off guard. 

The fighting, destructive, motive feelings 
are indicated by straight lines of the lids. 
Affection, benevolence, sympathy, and love, 
manifest in curving, drooping, full eye-lids, 
the absence of straight lines being marked. 
Amativeness and Alimentiveness show in very 
thick eye-lids, giving a sensual gross expres- 

180 Human Nature 

sion to the eyes. Destructiveness manifests 
in a tightening of the upper lid, and a bearing 
down upon the eyeball. Approbativeness 
gives a peculiar "coquettish" relaxation of 
the upper eye-lid, which is suggestive of the 
desire to wink in a meaning manner. Humor 
gives a peculiar contraction to the eye-lids, 
and at the same time producing the little lines 
radiating from each outer corner of the eye- 
lids—the "laughing wrinkles." Ideality, Op- 
timism, and Mysticism impart an open ex- 
pression to the eyes. Cautiousness, when 
large, also gives to the eyes an open, almost 
startled, surprised expression. 

Large, protruding eyes are held to be in- 
dicative of wordiness, talkativeness, and lack 
of careful thought— the desire to talk for the 
pleasure of hearing oneself talk. 

In connection with the subject of the outer 
form manifesting in the eyes, we would call 
your attention to the quotation from Prof. 
0. S. Fowler, appearing in Lesson XIII, in 
which he speaks of certain of the Perceptive 
Qualities which indicate in outer form in the 
region of the eye, as follows: "The shape of 
the eyebrows reveals the size, absolute and 

Eyes, Ears and Noses 181 

relative, of each, thus: When all are large, 
the eyebrow is long and arching; when all are 
deficient, it is long and straight; when some 
are large and others small, it arches over the 
large ones, but passes horizontally over those 
which are small. This rule is infallible." In 
connection therewith, we suggest that the 
student re-read carefully Chapter XIII, which 
deals with the Perceptive Qualities which 
manifest outer form in the region of the eye. 


Many physiognomists pass lightly over the 
subject of the ears as an index of character, 
while others seem to specialize on this feature. 

The round ear is held to indicate the Vital 
Temperament. The oblong ear, the Motive 
Temperament; and the pear-shaped ear the 
Mental Temperament. 

Quality is held to be indicated by the rela- 
tive delicateness in the moulding of the ear, 
a coarse, misshapen ear being held to indicate 
an uncultivated nature; while a delicately 
moulded, shapely ear is held to indicate cul- 
ture and refinement. 

A long, narrow ear is held to indicate an 


Human Nature 

ambitious, striving nature. An ear pointed 
at the tip (upper part) is held to be indicative 
of selfishness and general ' ' f oxiness. ' ' 


All physiognomists agree upon the import- 
ance of the nose as an index of character. The 

Fig. 21 
a, roman ; b, grecian ; c, cherubic 

majority of people recognize the sign of a 
large, strong nose, on the one hand, and a 
small, weak nose on the other. 

In Fig. 21 we see the three general forms 
of the nose, the Roman; Grecian and Cher- 
ubic; respectively. The Roman nose is held 

Eyes, Ears and Noses 


to be indicative of Self-Esteem, Combative- 
ness, Destructiveness and Acquisitiveness. 
The Grecian nose is held to be indicative of 
Ideality, Conscientiousness, Reverence and 
other ' ' higher qualities. ' ' The Cherubic nose 
is held to be indicative of feminine qualities, 
social attractiveness, and emotional qualities. 

Fig. 22 
theee temperaments 

There are of course innumerable modifica- 
tions and combinations of these three general 

In Fig. 22 we see the classification adopted 
by some authorities, who divide the nose into 
three general parts, each of which is held to 
indicate one of the three Temperaments, and 
the Qualities which are related to each. Thus 

184 Human Nature 

the hard bony part, including the bridge, in- 
dicates the Motive ; the tip and end, the Men- 
tal ; and the " wings" on each side of the nos- 
trils, the Vital. There is much truth in this 
classification, and a careful study of this il- 
lustration will aid the student in his under- 
standing of noses as an outer sign of charac- 
ter. In fact, this illustration may be used as 
a basis for the whole subject of the meaning 
of noses as outer signs of character. 

Large nostrils indicate strong Vitativeness 
and physical well-being, and often strong 
Emotive Qualities. Narrow, small, or tight 
nostrils indicate weak Vitativeness and Vital 
Force An authority says: "If the nostrils 
are wide-apart, the man is merciful. If the 
nostrils are wide-open, like those of a bull, 
resemblances to that animal prevail in violent 
wrath and hard breathing." 

The tip of the nose indicates the several 
mental qualities. The sharp pointed tip indi- 
cates an inquisitive, prying, investigating na- 
ture — a general "sharpness" so to speak. A 
blunt tip indicates a lack of "sharpness" and 
inquisitiveness. The upturned tip, or ' ' pug, ' ' 
indicates a trifling, superficial, gossiping ten- 

Eyes, Ears and Noses 185 

dency. As a general rule the sharp tip indi- 
cates thought, while the rounded trip indicates 

The bony part of the nose, when prominent, 
indicates the strength of the Motive Qualities, 
such as Combativeness, Destructiveness, Ac- 
quisitiveness, Constructiveness, etc. It gen- 
erally accompanies the people who push for- 
ward and "do things" in spite of obstacles- 
it is the nose of the great generals, and the 
majority of great financiers. 



While the subject of hands may be thought 
to belong to the study of Palmistry, with 
which we have no concern in this book, never- 
theless we think that we should include here- 
in a brief reference to the several classes of 
the hand as indicative of the outer form of 
mental states. That the shape of the hand 
often reveals information regarding the char- 
acter of its owner is admitted by the best au-. 
thorities on the subject. Many persons who 
discard the theories of Palmistry still re- 
gard the subject of the shape and meaning of 
hands as apart from that study, and believe 
that an understanding of the indications of 
the several classes of hands is important to 
the students of Human Nature. 

There are seven general types of hands, viz : 
(1) The Spatulate; (2) the Square; (3) the 
Artistic; (4) the Elementary; (5) the Mixed; 
(6) the Philosophic; and (7) the Psychic. 
Following we give a brief recital of the quali- 
ties held to be indicated by each. 


Miscellaneous Signs 


In Fig. 23, we see the Spatulate Hand, 
the special peculiarities of which are the 
straight, smooth fingers and the "splay" 
tips. This type of hand is held to indicate an 

Fia. 23 


active, energetic nature, that is satisfied only 
when it is employed and doing something use- 
ful. This hand # is eminently ' ' practical, ' ' and 
its owner cares very little for art, poetry, or 


Human Nature 

In Fig. 24, we see the Square Hand, 
the special peculiarities of which are 
its general "squareness" of the palm, and 
generally of the finger-tips. This also is a 

Fig. 24 
square hand 

useful hand, and its owner is amenable to au- 
thority, and makes a good employee or helper. 
It indicates a quiet, peaceable disposition, and 
its owner is usually found to be careful, or- 
derly, and dependable— the sense of order be- 
ing especially strong. 

Miscellaneous Signs 


In Fig. 25, we see the Artistic Hand, 
the special peculiarities of which are 
the suppleness and softness of the hand; its 
symmetrical form; and its long, tapering- 
fingers. Its owners are of the poetic and ar- 

Fig. 25 
artistic hand 

tistic nature, with a taste for beautiful and re- 
fined things, artistic environment, bright and 
witty speech, and "choice" things generally. 
The Qualities of Ideality and Words are apt 


Human Nature 

to be well developed in these cases, and l ' the 
artistic temperament ' ' is found in its full de- 
velopment here. 

In Fig. 26, we see the Elementary Hand, 

Fig. 26 
elementary hand 

the special peculiarities of which are its short, 
thick fingers, and its thick heavy palm. Its 
owners are "of the earth, earthy," and have 
but very little imagination and fine taste. 

Miscellaneous Signs 


In Fig. 27, we have the Philosophic 
Hand, the special peculiarities of which 
are its large thumb, rounded finger-tips, and 

Fro. 27 


its projecting joints. Its owners are thinkers, 
investigators, and reasoners along practical 
lines, and are generally skeptical and inclined 
to demand proof of anything and everything. 


Human Nature 

In Fig. 28, we see the Psychic Hand, 
the special peculiarities of which are the 
extreme slenderness of the entire hand, 

Fig. 28 
psychic hand 

and the long thin, pointed fingers. Its own- 
ers have Mysticism highly developed, and in- 
cline toward the mysterious, supernatural oc- 

Miscellaneous Signs 193 

cult, and imaginative, and are generally of an 
extremely nervous, sensitive nature. 

Very few hands adhere strictly to any one 
of these several types, but are more or less 
composite or "mixed." In such cases the 
characteristics of each type mingle and blend, 
and must be interpreted accordingly. The 
following peculiarities are also noted by the 
authorities : 

The Thumb. The thumb is divided into 
three parts, each indicating a certain quality, 
as follows: (1) the top part or division, 
which indicates Will; (2) the second or mid- 
dle part, which indicates Logic; (3) the 
"ball" or fat lower portion, which indicates 
Passion. The comparative size of either of 
these parts indicates the strength of its par- 
ticular qualities. 

The Fingees. Hard fingers indicate work, 
activity, and energy. Soft fingers indicate 
love of ease, disinclination for work, laziness. 
Very hard hands denote heaviness and gen- 
eral stupidity, also gross tastes and undevel- 
oped nature. Smooth fingers denote artistic 
tastes, etc. ; while knotted fingers denote phil- 
osophic thought and argument, orderliness 

194 Human Nature 

and taste for material facts and things. 
Short fingers denote quick judgment and im- 
patience of detail; while long fingers denote 
a love of detail, elaboration and "fussiness." 
Spatulate fingers indicate tidiness, useful- 
ness, and a desire to be doing useful work. 

The Palm. Hardness of the palm, as of 
the fingers, denotes activity, energy and 
work ; while softness denotes love of ease, laz- 
iness, etc. Wideness of the palm denotes 
generosity, broad-mindedness, etc.; while a 
narrow palm denotes the reverse. Firm 
palms generally denote the Motive Tempera- 
ment ; while soft, flabby palms denote the Vi- 
tal temperament. 


The study of the Walk as an index of char- 
acter is favored by many authorities. There 
are three general types of walks, viz (1) the 
long stride, in regular time; (2) the short, 
quick, and somewhat jerky step; (3) the 
short but regular step. 

Those who walk with a long stride gener- 
ally take a broad view of things, but if their 
walk is also slow they are apt to lack energy 

Miscellaneous Signs 195 

and push. The short, quick step denotes ac- 
tivity, but small ideas and often pettiness. 
The combination of the long stride and the 
quick movement is held to indicate both large 
ideas and activity. A draggy, shuffling walk 
is held to indicate a careless, shiftless nature ; 
and a springy movement is indicative of men- 
tal activity. A mincing walk is held to denote 
"finickiness," affectation, and general arti- 
ficiality ; while a careless walk denotes a dis- 
regard for appearances and a general uncon- 
ventional nature. Those who walk in a 
straight line, direct to the object they seek, 
are apt to move in the same way in other af- 
fairs of life; while those who zig-zag from 
side to side display the same lack of direct- 
ness in business affairs and other activities 
of life. In the same way, one who makes 
short-cuts across corners, etc., is held to have 
the same tendency in active affairs. 

Approbativeness shows itself in a strut- 
ting walk ; while Self-Esteem manifests in a 
dignified carriage. Deficient, Self-Esteem 
shows itself in a cringing walk ; while strong 
Eeverence produces a respectful, deferential 
carriage. Approbativeness causes a slight 

196 Human Nature 

swagger, with a defiant carriage of the head, 
while Combativeness manifests in a "get out 
of my way" pushing walk, the head being 
slightly lowered as if to "butt" a way 
through. Cunning manifests in a foxy, sly 
walk; while Cautiousness shows in a timid, 
hesitating step ; and Acquisitiveness in a gen- 
eral carefulness and watchfulness as mani- 
fested in gait. A combination of Cunning, 
Cautiousness and Acquisitiveness, which is 
quite common, manifests in a light, stealthy 
step, giving the suggestion of "tip-toeing," 
and in extreme cases may show even the 
"snaky" gliding motion from side to side, in 
noiseless progression. 

A little study and observation will con- 
vince anyone that the walk and carriage of an 
individual correspond very closely to his gen- 
eral character. And just as we may recognize 
one's mental characteristics when reproduced 
in outer form in the walk ; so may we deduce 
the existence of mental characteristics in a 
stranger, from the outer form of his walk and 
carriage. The study of walk and carriage is 
very interesting, and will repay one for the 
time and trouble expended upon it. One may 

Miscellaneous Signs 197 

practice by observing the walk of an individ- 
ual whose character is known, for the purpose 
of seeing the outer form of these characteris- 
tics ; and also by observing the walk of those 
whose characters are unknown, and endeavor- 
ing to form an idea of their mental states and 
characteristics by means of their peculiarities 
of gait and carriage. One will be astonished 
at the proficiency attained in a short time by 
a little practice along these lines. 


The Voice is a great revealer of character. 
Prof. 0. S. Fowler says: "Whatever makes 
a noise, from the deafening roar of sea, cat- 
aract, and whirlwind's mighty crash, through 
all forms of animal life, to the sweet and 
gentle voice of woman, makes a sound which 
agrees perfectly with the maker's character. 
Thus the terrific roar of the lion, and the 
soft cooing of the dove, correspond exactly 
with their respective dispositions; while the 
rough and powerful bellow of the bull, the 
fierce yell of the tiger, the coarse, guttural 
moan of the hyena, the swinish grunt, the 
sweet warblings of birds, in contrast with the 

198 Human Nature 

raven's croak and the owl's hoot, each corres- 
pond perfectly with their respective char- 
acteristics. And this law holds equally true 
of man. Hence human intonations are as su- 
perior to brutal as human character exceeds 
animal. Accordingly, the peculiarities of all 
human beings are expressed in their voices 
and mode of speaking. Coarse-grained and 
powerful animal organizations have a coarse, 
harsh and grating voice, while in exact pro- 
portion as persons become refined and ele- 
vated mentally, will their tones of voice be- 
come correspondingly refined and perfected." 

Prof. L. A. Vaught says: "Affectionate 
voices always come from the backhead. 
Heavy, thunderous voices always come from 
the sidehead. Egotistical voices come from 
the crown of the head. Kind, respectful and 
straightforward voices come from the top- 

A clear, distinct utterance is held to indi- 
cate clear, logical thought, while indistinct, 
confused, slurring utterance is indicative of 
careless, illogical and hasty thought proc- 
esses. Sharp and shrill notes denote nerv- 
ous tension and lack of restraint, as witness 

Eyes, Eaes and Noses 199 

the voice of the shrew or the hysterical wo- 
man, or the high-strung nervous man. Self- 
restraint is shown by calm, deep, forceful ut- 
terances. Slowness in delivery denotes slow, 
deliberate mental processes, while quickness, 
and "snappiness" in speech, denotes quick, 
active habits of thought. The cheerful voice 
of the optimistic person, and the rasping 
whine of the chronic pessimist, are well 
known. The voice of self-reliance, and the 
voice of fear and lack of self-esteem, are 
easily recognized. The strident, overconfi- 
dent note of the boaster and vain-glorious 
person, is easily distinguished from that of 
the modest, careful, reliable person. 

All the several mental Qualities manifest 
in the voice, in tone, pitch or feeling. The 
Emotive Qualities give the affectionate 
voice; Self-Esteem gives the confident voice; 
Approbativeness gives the voice of affectation 
and conceit ; Combativeness gives the "let me 
alone" tone; Destructiveness gives the "get 
out of my way" note; Cunning and Acquisi- 
tiveness give the tone of deceit and flattery; 
and so on, through the entire scale. In study- 
ing voices it will help you to ask "What Qual- 

200 Human Nature 

ity or Qualities produce this voice?" in each 
case. Study the voices of those whose char- 
acteristics you know, and then apply the ex- 
perience to others whose characteristics are 


Laughter is full of the expression of char- 
acter. One may often accurately determine 
the character of a person whose face is not 
seen or known. A hearty laugh is indicative 
of sympathy, companionship and general so- 
ciability, as well as a well developed sense 
of humor. A giggle is indicative of pettiness, 
trifling and general mental light-weight. The 
repressed laugh shows self-control and often 
caution and cunning, the tone denoting the 
difference. The vulgar "haw-haw" denotes 
a correspondingly gross nature. The pe- 
culiar shrill, rasping, parrot-like laugh of the 
courtesan is typical, and when ever heard 
should act as a note of warning. It is difficult 
to state in words the various qualities of the 
laugh, but each is distinctive and well ex- 
presses the Quality causing it. It may be 
said that each and every mental Quality has 

Miscellaneous Signs 201 

its corresponding note in the laugh, which 
note may be learned and recognized by a little 
practice and actual observation. 


The manner of shaking hands is indicative 
of the characteristics of the individual. 
Handshakes may be divided into three gen- 
eral classes, viz, (1) the hearty handshake, 
which indicates good-feeling, earnestness, 
and interest; (2) the mechanical handshake, 
which denotes indifference, lack of feeling, 
and lack of interest; and (3) the selfish hand- 
shake, which denotes cunning, heartlessness, 
and desire and disposition to take advantage 
of the other party. There is a "something" 
in the handshake which is almost impossible 
to express in words, but which is recognized 
instinctively by those having Human Nature 
well developed. It is more of a "feeling" 
of certain Qualities manifested by the other 
person. A little thought and attention paid 
to this subject will tend to develop this rec- 
ognition on the part of one deficient in it. 
One may, with a little practice, learn to dis- 
tinguish between the honest and the dis- 

202 Human Nature 

honest; the moral and the immoral; the ac- 
tive and the passive; the energetic and the 
slothful; the grasp of good-fellowship, and 
that of superciliousness ; the friendly and the 
antagonistic; the candid and the deceitful; 
and all the other various kinds of handshakes. 
Mental states manifest in outer form in hand- 
shakes as in many other physical actions and 

First study the several Qualities in their 
inner aspect, and then learn to distinguish 
the various outer forms of each. From the 
inner proceed to the outer, and having 
learned the way you will be able to retrace 
your steps from the outer to the inner in the 
ease of other persons. The principle once 
grasped, the rest is all a matter of practice 
and experience. 


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